Author Interviews, PNAS / 06.01.2015

Akiko Iwasaki PhD Departments of Immunobiology and Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT 06520 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Akiko Iwasaki PhD Departments of Immunobiology and Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT 06520 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Iwasaki: Since the 1960's, scientists have known that the rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicates preferably at the cooler temperature found in the nose (33C) but not at the core body temperature found in the lungs (37C). However, the underlying mechanisms were not known. We focused on the host immune response as a possible factor that enables rhinovirus to replicate in the cooler temperature. Indeed, we found that by incubating airway cells isolated from mice at the cooler temperature, immune response to the virus was impaired. By using airway cells from knockout mice from which key innate sensor pathway or interferon receptor is deleted, we found that the virus now replicates even at the core body temperature of 37C. These experiments showed us that the rhinovirus replication is blocked at the higher temperature because of a more efficient immune defense at the core body temperature. (more…)
Author Interviews, Respiratory / 03.01.2015

Michael G. Rossmann PhD Hanley Professor of Biological Sciences Hockmeyer Hall of Structural Biology Purdue University, West Lafayette INMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael G. Rossmann PhD Hanley Professor of Biological Sciences Hockmeyer Hall of Structural Biology Purdue University,¬†West Lafayette¬†IN Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rossmann: My laboratory has long been interested in the structure of viruses and especially of Picornaviruses (e.g. EV-D68). We published the first 3D, near atomic resolution map of any animal virus in 1985. That was of Human Rhino (common cold) virus serotype 14. We then went on to show where and how the virus would bind to cellular receptors and also how certain small capsid binding compounds inhibited the viral infectivity. The latter was a collaboration first with the Sterling Winthrop company and later with ViroPharma. Thus our work on EV-D68 is a direct continuation of my interest in picornaviruses. (more…)