Author Interviews, Dental Research / 22.10.2019 Interview with: Robert Margolskee, MD, PhD Director and President Monell Center Adjunct Professor, Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We found chemical-sensing cells in the gums that protect the mouth by standing guard against infections that damage soft tissue and destroy the bone that supports the teeth. With the help of bitter taste receptors that also detect byproducts from harmful bacteria, these special gum cells trigger the immune system to control the amount and type of bacteria in the mouth. This knowledge could one day lead to personalized dental treatments against gum disease. Periodontitis is a serious gum disorder caused by an imbalance in the bacteria and other microorganisms of the mouth. We hope that our new information can help to combat this sixth-most prevalent infectious disease and most common cause of tooth loss worldwide. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, PNAS / 02.05.2019 Interview with: Dr. Casey Trimmer, PhD Geneticist, was a post-doctoral fellow at the Monell Center when the research was conducted What is the background for this study?   Response: We detect odors using 400 different types of sensor proteins, called olfactory receptors, in our noses. An odor molecule activates a specific combination of these receptors, and this pattern of activation gives us information on what we're smelling--whether its floral or smoky, intense or weak, and how much we like it. However, how the system translates receptor activation to these perceptual features is largely unknown. Here, we take advantage of the extensive genetic variation in the OR gene family to understand the contribution of individual ORs to odor perception. By studying cases where the function of a particular OR is lost, we can examine what kinds of perceptual alterations occur, allowing us to link receptor to odor and understand what kind of information the receptor is encoding. Data linking genetic variation to perceptual changes exist for only 5 ORs. Here, we examined the perceived intensity and pleasantness of 68 odors in 332 participants. We used next-generation genome sequencing to identify variants in 418 OR genes and conducted a genetic association analysis to relate this variation to differences in odor perception. We then use a cell-based assay to examine receptor function and investigate the mechanisms underlying our associations. Finally, we examined the contribution of single OR genotype, genetic ancestry, age, and gender to variations in odor perception. (more…)