Salivary Peptide Protects Against E. Coli Diarrhea

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Esther Bullitt, Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA  02118-2526

Dr. Bullitt

Esther Bullitt, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics
Boston University School of Medicine
Boston, MA  02118-2526 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response:      We know that saliva has properties that allow us to swallow easily, and to help prevent gum disease and infections in the mouth. But is that really the only use for the 1-2 liters (1-2 quarts) of saliva we produce every day?  We decided to test whether a component of saliva, Histatin-5, can help prevent diarrheal disease (Traveler’s Diarrhea by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)) that is caused by bacteria commonly found in contaminated food and water.

ETEC are bacteria that have hundreds of thin hair-like fibers on their surface, called pili. These bacteria bind specifically to the surface of the gut using these pili, and the bacteria need to stay bound long enough to initiate disease. Studies by Mike Levine’s group in the 1970’s showed that pili are necessary for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to cause disease. No adhesion, no disease.

One aid to remaining bound is the unwinding and rewinding of the pili. These helical fibers can unwind up to 8 times their original length, acting as shock absorbers during fluid flow.   Continue reading

Better Data Allows IFSAC and CDC To Identify Sources of Food Poisoning

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

NIAID image of salmonella invading an immune cell

LaTonia Richardson, PhD, Statistician
Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: Who is IFSAC?

Response: The Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration (IFSAC) was created in 2011 by three federal agencies—the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)—to improve coordination of federal food safety analytic efforts and address cross-cutting priorities for food safety data collection, analysis, and use.  The current focus of IFSAC’s activities is foodborne illness source attribution, defined as the process of estimating the most common food sources responsible for specific foodborne illnesses. For more information on IFSAC, visit https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ifsac/index.html.

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Your Mother Was Right! Raw Cookie Dough Can Make You Sick

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Escherichia coli CDC Image

E. coli – Escherichia coli
CDC Image

Samuel J. Crowe, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Food and Drug Administration
College Park, MD
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Flour has been a suspected outbreak vehicle for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections since 2009, when a multistate outbreak of foodborne disease was linked to prepackaged cookie dough. The 2016 STEC outbreak investigation described in this study was the first investigation to confirm flour as the source of an E. coli outbreak. Linking the outbreak to flour was challenging for several reasons, but epidemiologic, traceback, and microbiologic data ultimately confirmed that flour produced at a single facility was the source of the illnesses.

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Adherent-Invasive E. coli May Markedly Raise Risk of Crohn’s Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brian K. Coombes, PhD Professor & University Scholar Associate Chair, Graduate Education Department of Biochemistry & Biomedical Sciences Assistant Dean, Biochemistry Graduate Program Canada Research Chair in Infectious Disease Pathogenesis

Dr. Brian Coombes

Brian K. Coombes, PhD
Professor & University Scholar
Associate Chair, Graduate Education
Department of Biochemistry & Biomedical Sciences
Assistant Dean, Biochemistry Graduate Program
Canada Research Chair in Infectious Disease Pathogenesis

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: North Americans have among the highest reported prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the world. This is a lifelong disease that often strikes people in their early years, leading to decades of suffering, increased risk of colorectal cancer, and 50% increased risk of premature death. Compared to the general population, quality of life for those with Crohn’s disease is low across all dimensions of health. The need to understand the root origins of this disease and to use this information to invigorate a new pipeline of treatments and preventions has never been more pressing.

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