Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Johns Hopkins / 08.02.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary R. Rooney, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral research fellow Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prediabetes is defined by elevated blood glucose levels below the threshold for diabetes diagnosis. Physicians screen for prediabetes to identify patients at high risk for diabetes. Prediabetes is common in middle-aged adults but has not been well-studied in older age. We undertook this study to examine the natural history of prediabetes in older adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Metabolic Syndrome, Stroke / 10.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David Spence M.D., FRCPC, FAHA Professor of Neurology and Clinical Pharmacology Director, Stroke Prevention & Atherosclerosis Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Western University London, ON Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The motivation for the study was the chair of the committee that advises the Ontario Drug Benefit which medications to pay for said the IRIS results were not relevant to clinical practice. This because the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial reported effects of pioglitazone in patients with stroke or TIA and insulin resistance assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score for insulin resistance.1 ( However, few clinicians measure a HOMA-iR score, so the clinical impact of that trial was limited. In this study we analyzed the effect of pioglitazone in stroke/TIA patients with prediabetes, which is commonly assessed by clinicians. Prediabetes was defined by the American Diabetes Association: a glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) of 5.7% to <6.5% (we did not do glucose tolerance tests). We analyzed primarily the results for patients with 80% adherence, but also did an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The reason for focusing on patients with good adherence was that pioglitazone cannot be taken by about 10-20% of patients, because of fluid retention and weight gain (mainly due to fluid retention). (The reasoning was that third party payers would not need to pay for the medication in patients who do not take it.) In stroke/TIA patients with good adherence, the benefits of pioglitazone were greater than in the original IRIS trial. We found a 40% reduction of stroke/MI, a 33% reduction of stroke, and an 80% reduction of new-onset diabetes, over 5 years. Pioglitazone also improved blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. As expected, pioglitazone was somewhat less beneficial in the ITT analysis. Fluid retention can usually be managed by reducing the dose of pioglitazone; even small doses still have a beneficial effect . Also, amiloride has been shown to reduce fluid retention with pioglitazone.
  1. Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Furie KL, Young LH, Inzucchi SE, Gorman M, Guarino PD, Lovejoy AM, Peduzzi PN, Conwit R, Brass LM, Schwartz GG, Adams HP, Jr., Berger L, Carolei A, Clark W, Coull B, Ford GA, Kleindorfer D, O'Leary JR, Parsons MW, Ringleb P, Sen S, Spence JD, Tanne D, Wang D, Winder TR and Investigators IT. Pioglitazone after Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1321-31.
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Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Pain Research / 17.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Guy Fagherazzi, MSc, PhD, HDR Senior Research Scientist in Digital & Diabetes Epidemiology Center of Research in Epidemiology and Population Health Inserm, Paris-South Paris-Saclay University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Migraine has further been associated with increased risk of overall and specific cardiovascular disease events. Because migraine has also been associated with factors related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, an association between migraine and diabetes has been hypothesized. We observed a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women with active migraine. We also show a linear decrease of migraine prevalence long before and a plateau long after type 2 diabetes diagnosis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA / 03.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Saeid Shahraz Assistant Professor of Medicine Tufts Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: American Diabetes Association (ADA) has set up a lower cut point for diagnosing prediabetes ( those with Impaired Fasting Glucose 100 mg/dL) compared to the World Health Organization's cut point, which is 110 mg/dL. This arbitrariness in cut point definition triples the number of cases labeled as prediabetes. Along with lowering the diagnostic threshold by the ADA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the ADA endorsed and advertised a web-based risk model to define high-risk population for prediabetes. The risk engine asks a few questions ( age, sex, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes and high blood pressure, physical activity and weight) and outputs a score that defines if the person is at risk for prediabetes. We suspected that the risk engine might overestimate the risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 22.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yuli Huang and Yunzhao Hu Department of Cardiology, the First People's Hospital of Shunde, Shunde District, Foshan, PR China. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: “Prediabetes” is a general term that refers to an intermediate stage between normoglycaemia and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It includes 2 groups of individuals, those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In 2003, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) redefined the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range for diagnosing IFG from 110 to 125 mg/dl to 100 to 125 mg/dl in order to better identify individuals at future type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. However, this change has been contentious and was not adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Group or other international guidelines. In this meta-analysis, we included data from 26 prospective cohort studies with for 280,185 participants and found that, after controlling for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, the presence of prediabetes at baseline, defined as defined as IFG of 110 to 125 mg/dL(IFG 110), IGT or combined IFG 110 and/or IGT, was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Specifically, IFG 110 was associated with 12% and 19% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, IGT was associated with 33% and 23% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, combination of IFG110 and/or IGT was associated with 21% and 21% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. Although IFG 100 was not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in the overall analysis, the risk was greater in young and middle age males according to subgroup analyses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 09.09.2014

Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleagues MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleagues Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Huang: In this meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies comprising more than 890,000 individuals, we found that the presence of prediabetes at baseline associated with a 15% increased risk of cancer overall. The results were consistent across cancer endpoint, age, duration of follow-up and ethnicity. There was no significant difference for the risk of cancer with different definitions of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and/or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]). (more…)