Not Clear That Physical Activity Programs Reduce Cognitive Decline

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Exercise” by Diabetes Education Events is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Michelle Brasure, MSPH, PhD, MLIS
Evidence-based Practice Center
School of Public Health
University of Minnesota 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We conducted a large systematic review to assess the evidence relating to interventions to prevent cognitive decline and dementia. We included experimental studies with follow up times of at least six months. This paper analyzes the physical activity interventions; other papers in this issue address other types of interventions.

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Sedentary Behavior Associated with Higher Risk of Death

Rebecca Seguin, PhD, CSCS Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences Ithaca NY 14853MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rebecca Seguin, PhD, CSCS
Cornell University, Division of Nutritional Sciences
Ithaca NY 14853
MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main findings of the study are that regardless of demographic factors and physical activity levels, women who spent the most time engaged in sedentary behaviors had higher risk of death and women who spent the least amount of time engaged in sedentary behaviors.
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Workplace Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Maike Neuhaus, MPsych
Australian Postgraduate Award PhD Candidate
Cancer Prevention Research Centre
School of Population Health
The University of Queensland
Herston, QLD 4006 Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Substantial epidemiological evidence shows that high volumes of sedentary behaviour – simply put  too much sitting- are linked to detrimental health outcomes such as overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and all-cause mortality. Desk-based office workers typically spend around 75% of their work hours sitting at their desks or in meetings. Furthermore, they are unlikely to compensate for these high volumes of sitting time at work with less sedentary activities outside of work. Office workers are thus a high-risk group and an important target for intervention.

The Stand Up UQ study examined best-practice approaches to reduce excessive sitting in office workers. Three separate groups of administrative office workers from The University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, participated in this study: One group received height-adjustable workstations only; another group received the same height-adjustable workstations plus additional individual (e.g. face-to-face coaching) and organisational strategies (e.g. management consultation, staff information session) to reduce workplace sitting; the third group served as control group and maintained their usual work-practice. Results showed that relative to the control group, the group receiving height-adjustable workstations and additional strategies had a three-fold greater reduction in sitting time than the group receiving height-adjustable workstations only. These findings have important practical and financial implications for workplaces targeting sitting time reductions.

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