Author Interviews, CDC, Infections / 20.07.2018 Interview with: wash-hands-well . CDC wellAaron E. Glatt, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA Chairman, Department of Medicine & Hospital Epidemiologist South Nassau Communities Hospital Clinical Professor of Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Oceanside, NY 11572 What is the background for the CDC alert regarding a multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Reading infections linked to raw turkey products?   Is this Salmonella strain different or more dangerous than other Salmonella food poisoning outbreaks?  Response: The CDC has reported that as of yesterday, there have been 90 people infected with Salmonella Reading from 26 states. No deaths have been reported, but 40 patients to date required hospitalization. There was a previous outbreak of S. Reading in 2016 related to contaminated alfalfa sprouts, but this organism is not that much different nor is it more virulent than many other salmonella strains.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections / 08.03.2018 Interview with: Esther Bullitt, Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA  02118-2526 What is the background for this study? Response:      We know that saliva has properties that allow us to swallow easily, and to help prevent gum disease and infections in the mouth. But is that really the only use for the 1-2 liters (1-2 quarts) of saliva we produce every day?  We decided to test whether a component of saliva, Histatin-5, can help prevent diarrheal disease (Traveler’s Diarrhea by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)) that is caused by bacteria commonly found in contaminated food and water. ETEC are bacteria that have hundreds of thin hair-like fibers on their surface, called pili. These bacteria bind specifically to the surface of the gut using these pili, and the bacteria need to stay bound long enough to initiate disease. Studies by Mike Levine’s group in the 1970’s showed that pili are necessary for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to cause disease. No adhesion, no disease. One aid to remaining bound is the unwinding and rewinding of the pili. These helical fibers can unwind up to 8 times their original length, acting as shock absorbers during fluid flow.   (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections / 22.01.2018 Interview with: LaTonia Richardson, PhD, Statistician Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch CDC Who is IFSAC? Response: The Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration (IFSAC) was created in 2011 by three federal agencies—the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS)—to improve coordination of federal food safety analytic efforts and address cross-cutting priorities for food safety data collection, analysis, and use.  The current focus of IFSAC’s activities is foodborne illness source attribution, defined as the process of estimating the most common food sources responsible for specific foodborne illnesses. For more information on IFSAC, visit (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections / 05.11.2015 Interview with: Sam Crowe, PhD, MPH Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Medical Research: What were the leading causes of multistate foodborne outbreaks and the most common contaminated foods during the study period? Dr. Crowe: Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were the leading pathogens causing multistate foodborne outbreaks. In order of frequency, fruits, vegetable row crops, beef, sprouts, and seeded vegetables were the leading contaminated foods. Medical Research: How severe are multistate foodborne outbreaks? Dr. Crowe: From 2010 through 2014, multistate foodborne outbreaks accounted for only 3% of all U.S. foodborne outbreaks detected, but caused over one third of the hospitalizations and more than half of the deaths. Medical Research: Are these outbreaks occurring more frequently? Dr. Crowe: Multistate foodborne outbreaks are being identified more often in the United States because of better surveillance. Greater centralization of food processing and distribution practices also could be increasing the frequency and size of multistate foodborne outbreaks. This is why your business should Look for Ruggedised Industrial Pointing Devices Today, to ensure your business is staying up with the industry standards. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 22.08.2015

Nichola Kinsinger, Ph.D Postdoctoral Researcher, Chemical & Environmental Engineering University of California, Riverside USDA National Institute for Food and Agricultural Postdoctoral Fellow DoD Office of Naval Research National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Research Fellow EIT (Chemical Engineering) Interview with: Nichola Kinsinger, Ph.D Postdoctoral Researcher, Chemical & Environmental Engineering University of California, Riverside USDA National Institute for Food and Agricultural Postdoctoral Fellow DoD Office of Naval Research National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Research Fellow, EIT (Chemical Engineering) Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kinsinger: Outbreaks observed in produce are becoming increasing common possibly due to contaminated irrigation waters or contaminated waters used during processing.  In 2006 California had spinach-borne E. coli outbreak that impacted 26 states and 200 confirmed sickened.  Leafy greens account for 20% of the outbreaks alone and are of increased concern since they are frequently consumed raw. These outbreaks drew our attention over the past few years and we started applying methods originally developed for studying bacterial adhesion on engineered surfaces to the issue of food safety.  Although food safety is a new area of study for our lab, the project is based upon the concept of pathogen adhesion transport which has been the focus of my advisor’s lab for many years previously.  Rather than the previous scenario looking at pathogen interaction with engineered or mineral surfaces, we are looking at a spinach leaf instead. salad-cdc-image We are using a parallel plate flow chamber system developed by Professor Sharon Walker to evaluate the real time attachment and detachment of the pathogens to the spinach epicuticle layer (surface layer of the leaf) in realistic water chemistries and flow conditions.  Subsequently we can evaluate the efficacy of the rinsing process to kill the bacteria that may remain on the leaf.  Initially we were finding that at low concentrations of bleach, bacteria will detach from the leaf surface allowing for potential cross-contamination later in the process.   However above 500ppb we observed 100% of the attached bacterial cells are killed. So how in commercial rinsing operations that use bleach concentration ranging from 50-200ppm result in outbreaks?  Through this study we analyzed the topography of the leaf and modeled the concentration gradient across the surface of a leaf based on commercial rinsing practices.  We found that even at high bleach concentrations within rinse water result in low bleach concentrations at the leaf surface on the order of 5-1000 ppb bleach, which in our study has shown to that the bacteria can survive when attached to the leaf and/or detach causing concern for cross-contamination.   In this case the very disinfection processes intended to clean, remove, and prevent contamination was found to be a potential pathway to amplifying foodborne outbreaks. (more…)