Author Interviews, Diabetes, NIH, Pediatrics / 18.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ellen Leschek MD Program Director: Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is thought to be characterized by a progressive loss of pancreatic beta cell (insulin producing/releasing cell) function. For this reason, T2D medications eventually stop working and individuals with T2D require treatment with insulin. The Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Consortium was established by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) to evaluate the effects of treatment and treatment withdrawal on the loss of pancreatic beta cell function. In the RISE Study, progression of disease was assessed by the measurement of pancreatic beta cell function in youth and adults who had either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; prediabetes) or recently diagnosed Type 2 diabetes before, during and after treatment with study medications. Importantly, the RISE Pediatric Medication Study and the RISE Adult Medication Study were designed in tandem to allow direct comparison of the effects of two pharmacologic treatment regimens (the only two FDA-approved medications for Type 2 diabetes in youth) on disease progression in youth and adults. For more information about the RISE Study, please visit https://rise.bsc.gwu.edu/web/rise.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 11.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49712" align="alignleft" width="133"]MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kalypso Karastergiou, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai     MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?   Response: Multiple studies, epidemiological as well as clinical, have established that body shape is an important and independent predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk and ultimately total mortality. Subjects that preferentially store weight in the abdominal area (often described as android, upper-body or apple-shape obesity) are at increased risk, whereas those who preferentially store weight in the lower body, in the gluteofemoral area (gynoid, lower-body or pear-shape), appear to be protected. The former is more common in men, whereas the latter in women, especially premenopausal women.   The overarching questions in the field are:  •What factors determine body shape?  •	Why are subjects with lower-body shape protected?  •	Can we exploit the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved to improve stratification, prevention or treatment of obesity and related diseases?   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?   Response: Up to date, studies in body shape have focused on the distribution of the adipose (fat) tissue.  This report seeks to expand the investigation to other tissues as well. During the period from 1999-2006, 14,005 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (which represents the United States population), 20-69 years old, had a DXA test that allows total and regional estimation of fat, lean and bone tissue mass.   This preliminary analysis shows that body shape is determined by coordinated changes in the head, trunk and limbs that involve the fat, as well as the other tissues.     MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?  Response: This is an observational study that doesn’t allow us to draw conclusion as to cause and effect or prediction of future risk. It does suggest that body shape is a whole-body feature with systematic, coordinated changes in all body compartments and tissues.   The observations should be replicated in other populations and in prospective studies.      MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?  Response: This report generates more questions than it answers.   •	First of all, are there differences in the function of tissues that determine body shape between subjects with upper- versus lower body shape?   •	Which tissues drive differences in physiology and disease risk?   •	Can we identify the underlying molecular pathways?   •	Does any of these pathways represent a viable mechanistic target to prevent or treat disease and improve quality of life?     Dislosures The study is partly funded by grants from the MSHS Translational Science Hub at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (KL2TR001435) and the Einstein-Sinai Diabetes Research Center in New York City.     Citation: ADA 2019 abstract  277-OR: Lean Tissues as Novel Determinants of Pear vs. Apple Body Shape and Metabolic Health in Humans KALYPSO KARASTERGIOU Diabetes 2019 Jun; 68(Supplement 1): -.https://doi.org/10.2337/db19-277-OR    [wysija_form id="3"]  [last-modified]    The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website. Dr. Karastergiou[/caption]Kalypso Karastergiou, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Multiple studies, epidemiological as well as clinical, have established that body shape is an important and independent predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk and ultimately total mortality. Subjects that preferentially store weight in the abdominal area (often described as android, upper-body or apple-shape obesity) are at increased risk, whereas those who preferentially store weight in the lower body, in the gluteofemoral area (gynoid, lower-body or pear-shape), appear to be protected. The former is more common in men, whereas the latter in women, especially premenopausal women. The overarching questions in the field are:
  • What factors determine body shape?
  • Why are subjects with lower-body shape protected?
  • Can we exploit the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms involved to improve stratification, prevention or treatment of obesity and related diseases? 
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Vitamin D / 09.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49667" align="alignleft" width="142"]Anastassios G. Pittas, M.D MS Professor Co-Director, Diabetes and Lipid Center; Tufts University School of Medicine Dr. Pittas[/caption] Anastassios G. Pittas, M.D MS Professor Co-Director, Diabetes and Lipid Center; Tufts Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Observational studies have consistently reported an association between low blood vitamin D level and development of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers risk of developing diabetes is not known. We designed and conducted the Vitamin D and diabetes (D2d) study to answer this question.  We randomized 2,423 people with prediabetes to 4,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or placebo and followed them for new-onset diabetes with blood tests every 6 months for an average of 2.5 years. About 80% of participants had sufficient vitamin D level at baseline (25-hydroxyvitamin D level >= 20 ng/mL). The trial was designed to show a reduction of 25% or more in diabetes risk with vitamin D. The study was unable to show a reduction of 25% or more. At the end of the study, there was a 12% reduction in risk of developing diabetes with vitamin D, which missed statistical significance (hazard ration 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.04). In a small subgroup of participants with vitamin D deficiency at baseline (25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL) there was 62% reduction in risk of diabetes with vitamin D (hazard ration 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.80).
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Stroke / 09.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rongrong Yang, PhD candidate Tianjin Medical University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Worldwide, cerebrovascular disease (CBD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common disorders that have become among the top ten leading causes of death, killing approximately 8 million people in 2016. Both T2DM and CBD are complex genetic and lifestyle-related disorders. Genetic and familial environmental factors (e.g. foetal environment, maternal smoking and childhood socioeconomic status) have been shown to be involved in the development of both conditions. Accumulating evidence from previous studies suggests that T2DM is independently associated with an increased risk of CBD, especially ischemic CBD.