HPV6 Serology Associated with Bladder Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lael S. Reinstatler, MD, MPH.PGY 4 Urology ResidencyDartmouth Hitchcock

Dr. Reinstatler


Lael S
Reinstatler, MD, MPH.
PGY 4 Urology Residency
Dartmouth Hitchcock

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Human Papillomavirus is an oncogenic virus associated with other genitourinary cancers including penile cancer.

HPV is detectable in urine and in urethral swabs and it interacts with stratified squamous epithelium which lines the majority of the genitourinary tract. Prior research has identified HPV in bladder tumors but detection methods are inconsistent.

In this study, we looked for an association with HPV serology (indicating prior HPV systemic exposure) and bladder cancer.

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E-cigarette Smoke Increases Bladder Cancer Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Moon-shong Tang, Ph</strong>D Professor of Environmental Medicine, Pathology and Medicine New York University School of Medicine Tuxedo Park, New York 10987

Dr. Moon-shong Tang

Moon-shong Tang, PhD
Professor of Environmental Medicine, Pathology and Medicine
New York University Langone School of Medicine
Tuxedo Park, New York 10987

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: E-cigarettes (E-cigs) are designed to deliver the stimulant nicotine through aerosols, commonly referred as vapors. Nicotine is dissolved in organic solvents such as glycerin and propylene glycol. The nicotine is then aerosolized by controlled electric heating. E-cigs do not use tobacco leaves and E-cig smoke does not involve the burning process. Hence, E-cig smoke (ECS) contains only nicotine and the gas phase of the solvent. Because ECS contains neither carcinogens nor allergens or odors from the tobacco burning process, E-cigs have been promoted as an invention that can deliver a TS ‘high’ without TS negative effects. The population of E-cig users is rapidly rising, particularly in young adults. It has been estimated that 16% of high school students are E-cig smokers. Therefore, the health effects of E-cig smoke, particularly its carcinogenicity, deserve careful scrutiny.

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Heating Chemotherapy For Bladder Cancer Treatment May Increase Efficacy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alejandro Sousa, MD, PhD Department of Urology, Comarcal Hospital Monforte, Spain

Dr. Alejandro Sousa

Alejandro Sousa, MD, PhD
Department of Urology, Comarcal Hospital
Monforte, Spain

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Sousa: Bladder Cancer management has remained stable over the past 25 years, with very little in the way of new therapies or approaches being developed. Traditional treatment using intravesical Mitomycin C for Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) patients is limited due it’s low absorption levels. Device assisted therapies that deliver Chemo-hyperthermia offer a new hope, with the potential for improved outcomes and better disease management due the the increased drug activity and better efficacy. We wanted to investigate the optimal treatment regime for this new therapy and whether it provides a safe and effective alternative to current standard treatment. Continue reading

Biomarker Predicts Bladder Cancer Response To Treatment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Chao Cheng, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Genetics
Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Sciences
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth
Hanover NH, 03755

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Cheng: Bladder cancer is a common tumor type, with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) representing the majority of cases. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment is an effective immunotherapy that is commonly used to treat cancers of this subtype. However, this treatment fails to suppress tumor recurrence in up to 40% of patients. For this reason, biomarkers that predict the recurrence/progression of bladder cancer and patient response to BCG therapy are needed to tailor treatment strategies to individual patients.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Cheng: We had previously developed an E2F4 signature that consisted of the E2F4 transcription factor and its target genes identified by ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip experiments. Here, we found that the E2F4 signature is predictive of the progression of both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Furthermore, this signature is also predictive of patient responsiveness to intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Our results suggest that patients with positive E2F4 scores (indicating high E2F4 activity) benefit significantly from BCG therapy, while the progression of patients with negative E2F4 scores (indicating low E2F4 activity) does not show significant difference from untreated patients.

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NSAIDS May Be Helpful In Bladder Cancer Prevention

James Scheiman, M.D. Professor of Gastroenterology University of Michigan Medical SchoolMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
James Scheiman, M.D.
Professor of Gastroenterology
University of Michigan Medical School

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Scheiman: Using aspirin or other nsaids to reduce the risk of many cancers has been an active area of investigation. This study demonstrates in an animal model that a commonly used nsaid (naproxen) reduces bladder tumor development, while the concomitant use of an acid blocking drug– which has been shown in many clinical studies to reduce the ulcers and bleeding associated with nsaids in humans – is also effective. Naproxen has been shown to reduce colon polyps and skin cancers in animal models as well, so this broad effect demonstrates a novel strategy to test in clinical trials.

Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Dr. Scheiman: The study shows that using two commonly used classes of drugs together (one which, the proton pump inhibitor, can mitigate the adverse GI side effects of the other without affecting the cancer-reducing effect) may have value to reduce the risk of a number of common cancers. This idea needs to be studied in a clinical trial.

Citation:

Ronald A. Lubet, James M. Scheiman, Ann Bode, Jonathan White, Lori Minasian, M. Margaret Juliana, Daniel L. Boring, Vernon E. Steele, and Clinton J. Grubbs. Prevention of Chemically Induced Urinary Bladder Cancers by Naproxen: Protocols to Reduce Gastric Toxicity in Humans Do Not Alter Preventive Efficacy. Cancer Prevention Research, March 2015 DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0347

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Scheiman, M.D. (2015). NSAIDS May Be Helpful In Bladder Cancer Prevention 

Team reports genetic sequences most common bladder cancer

August 11, 2011 (Aurora, CO)–In an article published online this week in Nature Genetics, a University of Colorado Cancer Center team in partnership with universities in China and Denmark.

Recognizing the genetic mutations that make bladder cancer cells different than their healthy neighbors may allow early genetic screenings for cancer and new therapies targeting cells with these mutations. In addition, the mutations the team found are similar to those recently discovered in a host of other cancers, implying a possible common denominator in the cause of cancer in general. Specifically, in 59 percent of 97 patients with urothelial carcinoma, the team found mutations in genes responsible for chromatin remodeling – the process of packaging DNA for easy duplication during cell division.

“The discovery of mutation in the UTX gene and seven similar chromatin remodeling genes is a major step toward genetic testing and treatment of bladder cancer,” says Dan Theodorescu, MD, PhD, director the University of Colorado Cancer Center and an author on this work. On a grand scale, the study also provides the first-ever overview of the genetic basis of urothelial bladder cancer and implicates chromatin remodeling in its cause.

Chromatin describes the genetic contents of a cell’s nucleus including the cell’s DNA and the proteins that sculpt its arrangement inside the cell. During most of a cell’s life, these proteins arrange DNA loosely so that its inner parts are accessible and available for use. In preparation for cell division, these proteins in the cell’s chromatin constrict DNA into a tight package for efficient duplication. This squeezing is known as “chromatin remodeling.” How the cell remodels and thus how it duplicates depends greatly on associated chromatin remodeling genes — the genes this study found to be mutated in many bladder cancer patients.

“When we talk about ’causes’ of cancer, there’s a black box between a healthy cell and the emergence of cancerous ones,” says Theodorescu. “By exploring the genetic changes that take place inside this box, we can look at the links of the chain of events that lead to cancer and hopefully target specific links for therapy.”

In the development of bladder cancer, this study shows that chromatin remodeling is an important link.

“We are currently well underway in performing similar sequencing with Caucasian subjects to determine if the mutations in the Caucasian population are similar to those seen in this study’s Asian subjects,” Theodorescu says.

After confirmation, the task will be twofold: designing genetic tests for these mutations that may allow easy, early, accurate diagnosis of bladder cancer, and developing therapies that recognize these mutations and kill the cancerous cells that hold them.

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Dan Theodorescu is the Paul Bunn Chair of Cancer Research and professor of surgery and pharmacology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.