Author Interviews, Neurological Disorders, Radiology / 06.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30973" align="alignleft" width="150"]Jay Desai, M.D. Neurologist, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor, Keck School of Medicine of USC Dr. Jay Desai[/caption] Jay Desai, M.D. Neurologist, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles Assistant Professor, Keck School of Medicine of USC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We obtained measures of blood flow at rest from all regions of brain using an MRI technique called pulsed arterial spin labeling in 26 participants (children and adults) with stuttering. We compared these blood flow measures with those from 36 fluent controls. We found decreased blood flow in Broca’s region in participants with stuttering when compared to the fluent controls. The amount of blood flow correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and these findings extended into other portions of the language loop. We also detected alterations in blood flow in other brain regions including superior frontal gyrus, cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Neurological Disorders, Radiology, UCLA / 28.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joseph O’Neill, PhD Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University of California–Los Angeles Semel Institute for Neuroscience Los Angeles MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Stuttering seriously diminishes quality of life. While many children who stutter eventually grow out of it, stuttering does persist into adulthood in many others, despite treatment. Like earlier investigators, we are using neuroimaging to explore possible brain bases of stuttering, aiming, eventually, to improve prognosis. What's novel is that our study deploy neuroimaging modalities-- arterial spin labelling and, in this paper, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-- not previously employed in stuttering. MRS offers prospects of detecting possible neurochemical disturbances in stuttering. The MRS results showed differences in neurometabolite-- brain chemicals-- levels between people who stutter (adults and children) and those who don't in many brain regions where other neuroimaging has also observed effects of stuttering. In particular, MRS effects were apparent in brain circuits where our recent fMRI work detected signs of stuttering, circuits subserving self-regulation of speech production, attention and emotion. This reinforces the idea that stuttering has to do with how the brain manages its own activity along multiple dimensions: motivation, allocation of resources, and behavioral output.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 03.09.2013

Professor Sheena Reilly PhD FASSA Associate Director, Clinical and Public Health Research Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Professor of Speech Pathology Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital Flemington Road Parkville Victoria 3052 AustraliaProfessor Sheena Reilly PhD FASSA Associate Director, Clinical and Public Health Research Murdoch Childrens Research Institute Professor of Speech Pathology Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne Royal Children’s Hospital Flemington Road Parkville Victoria 3052 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Reilly: Stuttering was more common than previously thought. The cumulative incidence of stuttering by four years old was 11%, which is more than twice what has previously been reported. Developmental stuttering was associated with better language development, non-verbal skills with no identifiable effect on the child’s mental health or temperament by four years of age.