AHA Journals, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Dental Research, Menopause / 07.03.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH Research Professor (epidemiology) Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health School of Public Health and Health Professions Women’s Health Initiative Northeast Regional Center University at Buffalo – SUNY Buffalo, NY 14214 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Dr. LaMonte:  The rationale for this study was based on existing study results showing
  • (1) oral bacteria are involved with conversion of dietary nitrate (e.g., from leafy greens and beets) to nitric oxide which is a chemical involved keeping arteries healthy and maintaining blood pressure;
  • (2) rinsing the mouth with antiseptic solution (mouthwash) kills oral bacteria and results in rapid increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure; and
  • (3) a very limited amount of epidemiological data suggest that the oral bacteria found beneath the gums (responsible for gingivitis and periodontal disease) are associated with blood pressure and history of hypertension in middle-aged adults.
Thus, we conducted our study to determine whether oral bacteria (beneath the gums) would be predictive of developing hypertension among women who were without this condition at the time the bacteria were measured. Because the bacteria (exposure) would be known to precede development of hypertension (disease), an association seen in our study would be strongly suggestive of a role for oral bacteria in the development of high blood pressure. Our primary result was for statistically significant higher risks of developing hypertension associated with 10 bacterial species, and significantly lower risks of developing hypertension associated with 5 bacterial species. Our findings were evident even after we accounted for differences in demographic factors, lifestyle factors, and clinical factors, and generally were of consistent magnitudes we examined across subgroups of older and younger women, white and black women, normal weight and overweight/obese women, those with normal or slightly elevated blood pressure at study enrollment, and those who were using or not using menopausal hormone therapy at baseline. Therefore, while our observational study evidence for an association is not equivalent to causation, the robustness of the associations between oral bacteria and hypertension risk supports a need to further understand this relationship, ideally with a clinical trial design that would provide definitive evidence to support or refute causation.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Heart Disease, Hip Fractures, JAMA, Menopause / 28.10.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jean Wactawski-Wende PhD Dean, SUNY Distinguished Professor Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health School of Public Health and Health Professions University of Buffalo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: This study included data from the Women’s Health Initiative, a prospective study of postmenopausal women from across the United States. We assessed physical activity in 77,206 women over an average of 14 years of follow-up. Approximately 1/3 of these women (average age 63.4 years) had at least one fracture occur. Higher physical activity levels were associated with  lower risk of hip and total fracture. Even levels of activity that were moderate, including regular walking and doing household chores, were beneficial.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Psychological Science, Social Issues, Weight Research / 24.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: "Chocolate Brownies" by Kurtis Garbutt is licensed under CC BY 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0Jessica S. Kruger PhD Clinical Assistant Professor Department of Community Health and Health Behavior School of Public Health and Health Professions University of Buffalo Daniel J. Kruger PhD Adjunct Faculty Associate, Population Studies Center. Michigan's Population Studies Center  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The legal environment for cannabis is changing rapidly and an increasing proportion of people are using cannabis for medical and recreational purposes. All policy and practice should be informed by science, yet there is a large gap between evidence and existing practices, and the current scope of research on cannabis users is limited. Public Health has the responsibility of protecting the public, maximizing benefits and minimizing harm in any area. However, the Public Health approach to cannabis has largely been limited to a focus on abstinence, and Federal regulations have restricted the scope of cannabis-related research. (more…)