Adherent-Invasive E. coli May Markedly Raise Risk of Crohn’s Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brian K. Coombes, PhD Professor & University Scholar Associate Chair, Graduate Education Department of Biochemistry & Biomedical Sciences Assistant Dean, Biochemistry Graduate Program Canada Research Chair in Infectious Disease Pathogenesis

Dr. Brian Coombes

Brian K. Coombes, PhD
Professor & University Scholar
Associate Chair, Graduate Education
Department of Biochemistry & Biomedical Sciences
Assistant Dean, Biochemistry Graduate Program
Canada Research Chair in Infectious Disease Pathogenesis

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: North Americans have among the highest reported prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the world. This is a lifelong disease that often strikes people in their early years, leading to decades of suffering, increased risk of colorectal cancer, and 50% increased risk of premature death. Compared to the general population, quality of life for those with Crohn’s disease is low across all dimensions of health. The need to understand the root origins of this disease and to use this information to invigorate a new pipeline of treatments and preventions has never been more pressing.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Clinical studies show that acute infectious gastroenteritis caused by enteric pathogens (including Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli) increase the short- and long-term risk of developing Crohn’s disease, which is one type of IBD. However, the reasons behind this are not known. Using an animal model of Crohn’s disease, in this study we show that acute infectious gastroenteritis caused by either Salmonella typhimurium or a mouse pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, leads to the expansion of a Crohn’s-associated bacterium found in the gut, called adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC). Even after the host cleared Salmonella or Citrobacter, the increased numbers of AIEC persisted in the gut, leading to worsened disease symptoms over a long period of time.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Our results suggest that individuals colonized by adherent-invasive E. coli at the time of acute infectious gastroenteritis may be at greatest risk for Crohn’s disease onset. However, it should be noted that not all individuals exposed to these risk factors would develop Crohn’s disease. At this time, our results are only based on studies in animals.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Therapeutic interventions that specifically target adherent-invasive E. coli have yet to be developed, but may be beneficial in reducing the inflammatory damage associated with AIEC infection.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Acute Infectious Gastroenteritis Potentiates a Crohn’s Disease Pathobiont to Fuel Ongoing Inflammation in the Post-Infectious Period
Cherrie L. Small,Lydia Xing,Joseph B. McPhee,Hong T. Law,Brian K. Coombes
PLOS Published: October 6, 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005907

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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