About Marie Benz MD FAAD

Physician in practice over 30 years. Editor of MedicalResearch.com. All interviews conducted exclusively for MedicalResearch.com by Marie Benz, MD.

High Lead Levels in Refugee Children Resettled in US

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Madhav P. Bhatta, PhD, MPHAssociate Professor, Epidemiology & Global HealthCollege of Public HealthKent State UniversityKent, OH 44242

Dr. Bhatta

Madhav P. Bhatta, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor, Epidemiology & Global Health
College of Public Health
Kent State University
Kent, OH 44242

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Lead exposure, especially in children, in any amount is harmful. Lead poisoning is a growing global environmental health problem with increasing lead-related diseases, disabilities, and deaths.  While exposure to lead in US children, in general, has significantly declined in the last three to four decades certain sub-groups of US children such as African Americans, immigrants and resettled refugees, and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are still vulnerable to environmental lead exposure.

Previous studies among resettled refugee children in the United States had found 4- to 5-times higher prevalence of elevated blood lead level (EBLL) when compared to US-born children. However, most of the studies were conducted when EBLL was defined as blood lead level ≥ 10 µg/dL. In 2012, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention changed the reference value for EBLL to ≥ 5 µg/dL. Moreover, because the countries of origin for US resettled refugees change over time, it is important to have epidemiologic studies that provide the current information on EBLL among these vulnerable new US immigrant children.

Using blood lead level data from the post-resettlement medical screening, our study examined the prevalence of elevated blood lead level at the time of resettlement among former refugee children who were settled in the state of Ohio from 2009-2016. We had a large and diverse sample (5,661 children from 46 countries of origin) of children for the study, which allowed us to assess EBLL in children from several countries of origin that had not been previously studied. Continue reading

Pediatric Blood Lead Levels in Public vs Private New York Housing

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lead paint can crack and form flakes, which can contaminate the surrounding environment. Source: Wikipedia

Lead paint can crack and form flakes, which can contaminate the surrounding environment.
Source: Wikipedia

Ms. Jacqueline Chiofalo, MPA
Director of Policy Research & Analysis
The Institute for Family Health
Astoria, New York 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Exposure to lead is dangerous and has been banned from use in residential dwellings. However, residual sources of lead still exist. Few studies have examined pediatric lead poisoning between public (NYCHA) and private housing units, and no recent studies performed in New York City. Our study used retrospective chart analysis of routine child lead testing to examine the difference in blood lead levels between the two housing types.

Our data showed that children seen in our health centers who lived in New York City public housing had significantly lower mean blood lead levels and fewer children were found with levels over the CDC reference range of 5 μg/dL compared to children who lived in private housing.  Continue reading

Stroke: Experimental Antiplatelet Antibody Only Attacks Clots, Without Increasing Bleeding Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Martine Jandrot-Perrus MD, PhD.Emeritus Research ProfessorInserm University Paris DiderotActicor BiotechHôpital BichatFrance

Dr. Jandrot-Perrus


Martine Jandrot-Perrus MD, PhD.
Emeritus Research Professor
Inserm University Paris Diderot
Acticor Biotech
Hôpital Bichat
France 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Blood platelets are key actors in thrombosis a leading cause of global mortality estimated to account for 1 in 4 death worldwide in 2010.

Thrombosis is associated with cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, stroke, lower limb ischemia, venous thromboembolism), and with numerous pathologies such as cancer, infections or inflammatory diseases. Currently available antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone of therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, these drugs all carry an inherent risk of bleeding that restricts their use in sensitive populations and when arterial thrombosis occurs in the cerebral territory. At present the only acute treatment option available for ischemic stroke consists in revascularization by thrombolysis, and/or mechanical thrombectomy. But the number of patients eligible to these treatments is low (» 15% of all patients) and the success rate does not exceed 50%. The responsibility of platelets in the failure for thrombolysis / thrombectomy to restore vascular patency is strongly suspected.

There is thus a clear medical need for new antiplatelet drugs with an improved safety profile. We set out to develop ACT017, a novel, first in class, therapeutic antibody to platelet glycoprotein VI with potent and selective antiplatelet effects. The interest of GPVI resides in the fact that it’s a receptor involved in the development of occlusive thrombi but that it is not strictly required for physiological hemostasis.
Continue reading

AI Poised to Revolutionize Radiation Therapy for Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Raymond H Mak, MDRadiation OncologyBrigham and Women's Hospital

Dr. Mak

Raymond H Mak, MD
Radiation Oncology
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

  • Lung cancer remains the most common cancer, and leading cause of cancer mortality, in the world and ~40-50% of lung cancer patients will need radiation therapy as part of their care
  • The accuracy and precision of lung tumor targeting by radiation oncologists can directly impact outcomes, since this key targeting task is critical for successful therapeutic radiation delivery.
  • An incorrectly delineated tumor may lead to inadequate dose at tumor margins during radiation therapy, which in turn decreases the likelihood of tumor control.
  • Multiple studies have shown significant inter-observer variation in tumor target design, even among expert radiation oncologists
  • Expertise in targeting lung tumors for radiation therapy may not be available to under-resourced health care settings
  • Some more information on the problem of lung cancer and the radiation therapy targeting task here:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=An-YDBjFDV8&feature=youtu.be

Continue reading

“Magic Mouthwash” Can Decrease Mouth Pain from Radiation Therapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robert C. Miller, MD, MS, MBADepartment of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FloridaUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Dr. Miller

Robert C. Miller, MD, MS, MBA
Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: “Magic Mouthwash” is one of the most commonly prescribed medications for oral mucositis pain during cancer therapy, but there has not been good evidence in the past to support its use.

This trial is the first large randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that both “Magic” mouthwash and doxepin rinse reduce patient reported pain during cancer therapy.

Continue reading

Just a Picture of Coffee Can Give Your Heart Rate, and Brain, a Lift

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eugene Chan, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Marketing
Monash Business School
Monash University Australia and 

Sam Maglio PhD
Associate Professor of Marketing
Department of Management
University of Toronto 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The physiological effects of coffee and caffeine consumption have been well-studied, but we were interested in the psychological effects.

Especially in Western societies, there is a mental association between coffee and arousal – that coffee is an arousing beverage. This led us to ask, might this association itself produce the psychological “lift” without actually drinking beverages? We found that it does.

Merely seeing pictures of coffee or thinking about coffee can increase arousal, heart rates, and make people more focused. The effects are not as strong as actually drinking coffee of course, but they are still noticeable.

Continue reading

Better Use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies Can Help Smokers Quit

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Nicola Lindson PhD CPsycholCochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) Managing Editor & Senior Researcher Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences,University of Oxford 

Dr. Lindson

Dr Nicola Lindson PhD CPsychol
Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group (TAG) Managing Editor & Senior Researcher
Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences,
University of Oxford
 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: People have been using nicotine replacement therapy, otherwise known as NRT, to quit smoking for more than 20 years. NRT is available in a range of forms: skin patches, chewing gum, nasal and oral sprays, inhalators, and lozenges. We have good evidence that it is safe and that it helps more people to quit than trying to stop smoking using no medication.

We carried out a systematic review to try and find out what the best ways are to use NRT to maximise a person’s chances of quitting successfully. We did this by looking at studies that compared at least two different types of NRT use, such as higher versus lower doses, or longer versus shorter use.

The takeaway message from the review is that using more nicotine (in the form of nicotine replacement therapy, ) to aid quitting can help more people to stop smoking in the long-term. There is high quality evidence that using two forms of nicotine replacement at the same time – a patch as well as a faster-acting form such as gum – increases chances of quitting, and evidence also suggests that starting to use nicotine replacement before the day you give up cigarettes can help more people quit than beginning use on the day you stop.

There is no evidence that using more nicotine replacement is harmful when used as directed. Continue reading

DNA Copy Number Variants Linked to Increased Risk of Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Kimberley Kendall MBBChWellcome Trust Clinical Research Fellow

Dr. Kendall

Dr Kimberley Kendall MBBCh
Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Fellow

Professor James WaltersMRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsProfessor, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences

Prof. Walters

Professor James Walters
MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics
Professor, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences

Cardiff University
 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Copy number variants (CNVs) are the deletion or duplication of large sections of DNA. Large, rare CNVs have been shown to increase the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. However, the impact of these CNVs on risk of depression was unclear from the existing literature. Continue reading

Pediatric Melanoma Risk Increasing in Adolescents & Young Adults, Including in Non-Whites

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Susan M. Swetter, MDProfessor of DermatologyDirector, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma ProgramPhysician Leader, Cancer Care Program in Cutaneous OncologyStanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute

Dr. Swetter

Susan M. Swetter, MD
Professor of Dermatology
Director, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma Program
Physician Leader, Cancer Care Program in Cutaneous Oncology
Stanford University Medical Center and Cancer Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The Stanford Pigmented Lesion and Melanoma and Program and Pediatric Dermatology Division participated in the long-term management of children, adolescents and young adults (<25 years of age) with melanoma and atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including atypical Spitz tumors (ASTs) that may be histopathologically challenging to differentiate from true melanoma.

Over a 23-year period, we have observed increased racial-ethnic diversity in young patients with these diagnoses, especially in the presentation of young individuals with darker skin phenotypes and more clinically amelanotic (nonpigmented) lesions compared to patients with lighter skin.  Continue reading

Oral Peanut Immunotherapy Evaluated for Preschool Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lianne Soller, PhDAllergy Research ManagerUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver, BC, Canada  

Dr. Soller

Lianne Soller, PhD
Allergy Research Manager
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, BC, Canada  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2017, a clinical trial of 37 subjects demonstrated that preschool peanut oral immunotherapy was safe, with predominantly mild symptoms reported and only one moderate reaction requiring epinephrine. Our study aimed to examine whether these findings would be applicable in a real-world setting (i.e., outside of research).

We found that peanut oral immunotherapy is safe in the vast majority of preschoolers, with only 0.4% of patients experiencing a severe reaction, and only 12 out of ~40,000 peanut doses needed epinephrine (0.03%).  Continue reading

Cervical Cancer Subtypes Vary Among Population Sectors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Farhad Islami, MD PhD Scientific Director, Surveillance Research American Cancer Society, Inc. Atlanta, GA 30303

Dr. Islami

Farhad Islami, MD PhD
Scientific Director, Surveillance Research
American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Despite a continuous decline in cervical cancer incidence rates, earlier studies reported an increase in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence rates. However, those reports had major limitations, as they did not account for changes in hysterectomy prevalence and used cancer occurrence data covering only 10%-12% of the U.S. population (which may not be representative of the entire population, especially racial/ethnic minorities).

Further, the most recent study examined the trends by age and histology through 2010. We examined contemporary trends in cervical cancer incidence rates in the U.S. (1999-2015) by age, race/ethnicity, major histological subtypes, and stage at diagnosis using up-to-date nationwide data after accounting for hysterectomy prevalence.

Continue reading

Pulse Ultrasound to the Brain Could Be Used To Affect Decision Making

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Elsa F. Fouragnan

Dr. Fouragnan

Elsa F. Fouragnan PhD
School of Psychology
(Faculty of Health and Human Sciences)
University of Plymouth

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Counterfactual thinking is a psychological process that involves the tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that are currently happening.

It is very important because it gives us the ability to switch away from uninteresting activities if better ones become available. For example, if you are working or doing the housework, you may be thinking about gardening or watching a movie later. As soon as your duties are finished, you may engage in these more exciting activities.

In our study, macaque monkeys were tasked to find treats under several colored cups (on a screen). Some of these cups were better than others but were not always available, thus the animals had to retain what they had learnt about the good cups in case they became available again. We found that a frontal part of the brain called the anterior cingulate cortex was responsible for tracking which cups were the best in order to efficiently switch to them if the opportunity arose. If this part of the brain was not functioning properly, then animals were stuck in non-optimal choices.

To reveal the causal role of the anterior cingulate cortex, we used a new neurostimulation method called low-intensity repetitive ultrasound to modulates activity in this part of the brain with millimetre accuracy.

Continue reading

Most Diabetes Apps Do Not Provide Real Time Decision Support (yet)

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Associate Professor Josip CarMD, PhD, DIC, MSc, FFPH, FRCP (Edin)​Associate Professor of Health Services Outcomes Research,​Director, Health Services Outcomes Research Programme and DirectorCentre for Population Health SciencesPrincipal Investigator, Population Health & Living Laboratory

Prof. Car

Associate Professor Josip Car
MD, PhD, DIC, MSc, FFPH, FRCP (Edin)​
Associate Professor of Health Services Outcomes Research,​
Director, Health Services Outcomes Research Programme and Director
Centre for Population Health Sciences
Principal Investigator, Population Health & Living Laboratory 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In 2018, almost 8% of people with diabetes who owned a smartphone used a diabetes app to support self-management. Currently, most apps are not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We downloaded and assessed 371 diabetes self-management apps, to see if they provided evidence-based decision support and patient education.  Continue reading

Ying and Yang of Empathy and Aggression Differ for Boys and Girls

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Eider Pascual-Sagastizabal, PhD

Professor of Evolutionary Psychology and Education
University School of Education of Bilbao (Leioa)
University of the Basque Country 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The search for markers of aggression during childhood is a particularly relevant area of research, since the results of intervention and prevention during this developmental stage are more promising than those obtained during later stages. The psychobiological approach to aggressive behavior is of particular importance, as it analyzes the joint, interactive influence of both psychological and biological variables.

We have found that there are different interactions on a biological and psychological level that could account for aggressive behavior in children. More deeply, empathy and hormones could together account for aggressive behavior. In fact, the interactions were different for boys and for girls.  Continue reading

RNA Genetic Testing Improves Analysis of Hereditary Cancer Genes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Rachid Karam, PhD

Director, Ambry Translational Genomics Lab
Ambry Genetics 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: DNA genetic testing (DGT) for hereditary cancer genes is now a well accepted clinical practice; however, the interpretation of DNA variation remains a challenge to laboratories and medical providers.

RNA genetic testing (RGT) as a supplement to DGT is a means to clarify the clinical actionability of variants in hereditary cancer genes, improving our ability to accurately apply known strategies for cancer risk reduction.

Continue reading

Stem Cell Therapy Improved Motor Deficit in Traumatic Brain Injury Trial

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. David Okonkwo, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurological surgery Director of the Neurotrauma Clinical Trials CenterUniversity of Pittsburgh

Dr. Okonkwo

Dr. David Okonkwo, M.D., Ph.D.,
Professor of Neurological surgery
Director of the Neurotrauma Clinical Trials Center
University of Pittsburgh

Dr. Okonkwo discusses the results from the STEMTRA Phase 2 trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of SB623 in patients with chronic motor deficit from traumatic brain injury.

The results were presented at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), April 2019

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the US and around the globe. The effects of TBI are often long-lasting, with more than one-third of severe TBI patients displaying a neuromotor abnormality on physical examination 2 years following injury and, yet, there are no effective treatments. The public health implications are staggering: there are approximately 1.4 million new cases of TBI in the US annually, resulting in over 50,000 deaths and 80,000 disabilities; over 5 million Americans currently suffer from long-term disability caused by TBI. A successful neuroregenerative or neurorestorative therapy, such as stem cell implantation, would have significant impact.

Continue reading

Short Rest Periods Are Performance Enhancers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

In a study of healthy volunteers, NIH researchers found that taking short breaks, early and often, may help our brains learn new skills. Courtesy of Cohen lab, NIH/NINDS

In a study of healthy volunteers, NIH researchers found that taking short breaks, early and often, may help our brains learn new skills.
Courtesy of Cohen lab, NIH/NINDS

Leonardo G. Cohen, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator

Marlene Bönstrup, M.D.,
Postdoctoral fellow in  Dr. Cohen’s lab
NIH’s National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Learning a new skill is typically divided into online (during practice) and offline (after practice has ended) components. Particularly motor skill learning occurs to a considerable degree offline, meaning that performance further improves even after practice has ended. A single practice session itself however, is typically divided into short (level of seconds) periods of practice and rest. In this study, we set out to investigate the contribution of those short periods of practice and rest to the learning during a practice session (i.e. online learning). We found that during early motor skill learning, when most of the total learning occurs, performance improvements actually precipitate during short periods of rest whereas during practice periods, performance mostly stagnated. We found a signature of neural activity predictive of those performance improvements during rest: The lower the beta rhythmic activity in the parietofrontal regions of the brain during those short periods of rest, the higher were participant’s performance jumps.  Continue reading

Diet Rich in Red Meat Linked to Earlier Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Heli Virtanen, PhD StudentUniversity of Eastern Finland

Heli Virtanen

Heli Virtanen, PhD Student
University of Eastern Finland 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Optimal amount of protein in diet for supporting longevity is unclear. In addition, there have been indications that different protein sources have differential associations with mortality risk.  Thus, we investigated the associations of proteins and protein sources with mortality risk in the Finnish men of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.

Continue reading

Very Low LDL Cholesterol Associated with Hemorrhagic Stroke in Women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pamela M. Rist, ScDAssistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical SchoolBrigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Preventive MedicineBoston, MA 02215 

Dr. Rist

Pamela M. Rist, ScD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Division of Preventive Medicine
Boston, MA 02215 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, some prior studies have observed an inverse association between total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk of hemorrhagic stroke.  However, many studies were not able to study this association specifically among women.

Our main result was very low levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or low levels of triglycerides were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke among women. Continue reading

Unhealthy, Binge Behaviors in College Students Disrupts Brain Chemistry

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lina Begdache, PhD, RDN, CDN, CNS-S, FANDAssistant ProfessorHealth and Wellness Studies Department GW 15Decker School of NursingBinghamton University

Dr. Begdache

Lina Begdache, PhD, RDN, CDN, CNS-S, FAND
Assistant Professor
Health and Wellness Studies Department GW 15
Decker School of Nursing
Binghamton University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: College students engage in activities such as binge drinking, abuse of ADHD medications as “study drugs” or use of illicit drugs during a critical brain developmental window that supports maturation of the brain (the prefrontal cortex) necessary for emotional control, cognitive functions and regulation of impulsive behaviors. These activities not only affect brain function, thus mental health and cognitive functions, but may dampen brain development with potential long-lasting effects.

As for findings, we were able to identify neurobehavioral patterns that associate with mental wellbeing and mental distress in young adults. Based on evidence from the literature, we constructed conceptual models that describe how one behavior may lead to another until virtuous or vicious cycles set-in.  Continue reading

Despair Rising in Young Middle Aged Adults, Regardless of Ethnicity or Education

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lauren Gaydosh, PhDAssistant ProfessorCenter for Medicine, Health, and SocietyPublic Policy StudiesVanderbilt University 

Dr. Gaydosh

Lauren Gaydosh, PhD
Assistant Professor
Center for Medicine, Health, and Society
Public Policy Studies
Vanderbilt University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  

Response: Several years ago, life expectancy at birth in the United States declined, and this decline has continued every year since. Part of the cause underlying this decline is that midlife mortality – deaths among those 45-54 – has been rising. This increase in midlife mortality has been attributed by some to the “deaths of despair” – a cluster of causes of death including suicide, drug overdose, and alcohol-related disease – and has been most pronounced among middle-aged white adults with a HS degree or less.

In our research, we wanted to better understand the indicators of despair that would be predictive of these causes of death. Things like depression, substance use, and suicidal ideation. And study them in individuals before the period of elevated risk of death – in other words, before they reached middle age. Our goal was to evaluate whether these markers of despair were rising for a younger cohort, and whether this pattern was isolated to white adults with low education.

Continue reading

Sentinel Lymph Node Drainage Can Be Used to Test For Marker of Melanoma Relapse Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Héctor Peinado PhDMicroenvironment and Metastasis LaboratoryMolecular Oncology ProgramSpanish National Cancer Research CenterMadrid, Spain

Dr. Peinado

Héctor Peinado PhD
Microenvironment and Metastasis Laboratory
Molecular Oncology Program
Spanish National Cancer Research Center
Madrid, Spain 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: In this study we detected for the first time BRAF mutation by liquid biopsy in melanoma stage III patients that underwent lymphadenectomy. We obtained a novel biofluid from the drainage implanted 24-48 hours post-lymphadenectomy, called exudative seroma, and profiled BRAF mutation in circulating free DNA and extracellular vesicles.

Those patients positive for BRAF mutation in the seroma had increased risk of relapse, therefore we believe that this technique identifies patients at risk of relapse by identifying residual disease.

Continue reading

Travelers Can Bring Home Drug-Resistant Bacteria as Souvenirs from Low and Middle Income Countries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lynn Meurs, PhDEPIET fellow at Robert Koch InstituteEuropean Centre for Disease Prevention and ControlGermany

Dr. Meurs

Lynn Meurs, PhD
EPIET fellow at Robert Koch Institute
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is unknown how Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL) -producing bacteria are spread, but several studies have shown that intercontinental travellers often return home with these drug-resistant bacteria.

The aim of our study was to investigate into more detail what causes colonisation with these bacteria in people travelling to low and/or middle-income countries  (LMICs) in the tropics and subtropics. We found that out of the travellers that were ESBL-negative before travelling, 23% of returned with ESBL-producing bacteria. In line with previous studies, we found that travelling to Eastern, Southern, and Western Asia is associated with ESBL colonisation.

Unexpectedly, we furthermore found that staying in a hotel as well as in private accommodation as compared to other types of commercial accommodation such as hostels, camping or guesthouses, was associated with the colonisation with these drug-resistant bacteria. Continue reading

Brain Training Can Strengthen Cognitive Function in Patients With Mild Impairment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sandra Bond Chapman PhDFounder and Chief Director, Center for BrainHealth,Co-Leader, The BrainHealth ProjectUniversity of Texas, Dallas

Dr. Chapman

Dr. Sandra Bond Chapman PhD
Founder and Chief Director, Center for BrainHealth,
Co-Leader, The BrainHealth Project
University of Texas, Dallas

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Finding effective treatments to reverse or slow rates of cognitive decline for those at risk for developing dementia is one of the most important and urgent challenges of the 21st century.

Brain stimulation is gaining attention as a viable intervention to increase neuroplasticity when used in isolation or when combined with cognitive training regimens. Given the growing evidence that certain cognitive training protocols, such as SMART, benefit people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a population that is vulnerable to Alzheimer’s disease, we were interested in exploring whether we could further increase the gains from cognitive training (i.e., SMART) when the training was preceded by brain stimulation using tDCS.  Continue reading

Medical Interns Spend 87 percent of Their Work Time Away From Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Krisda Chaiyachati, MD, MPH, MSHPAssistant Professor , Medicine, Perelman School of MedicineClinical Innovation Manager, Penn's Center for Health Care InnovationPerelman School of MedicineMedical Director, Penn Medicine's FirstCall Virtual Care

Dr. Chaiyachati

Krisda Chaiyachati, MD, MPH, MSHP
Assistant Professor
Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine
Clinical Innovation Manager
Penn’s Center for Health Care Innovation
Perelman School of Medicine
Medical Director, Penn Medicine’s FirstCall Virtual Care  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The United States spends more than $12 billion annually on training young doctors who have rates of burnout and depression at an alarmingly high rate. Yet, we have limited evidence as to what they are doing while training in the hospital. We sought to glimpse into how their day is spent. In the largest study to date, we observed 80 first-year internal medicine physicians (“interns”) for nearly 2200 hours across 194 work shifts at 6 different sites. Our research sought to understand what medical residents did by categorizing training activities into themes such as time spent in education or patient care.  Continue reading