Vast Majority of Adults Do Not Consume Enough Fruit and Vegetables

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, PhD Epidemiologist, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Dr. Seung Hee Lee-Kwan

Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, PhD
Epidemiologist, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Seung Hee Lee-Kwan has a PhD in International Health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her previous work focused community-based interventions that aimed to promote healthy eating. Dr. Lee-Kwan’s current work at CDC is on fruits and vegetable surveillance, and research of health behaviors and environmental factors associated with obesity.

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The purpose of the study was to update a 2013 report that estimated how many people in each state are meeting fruit and vegetable intake recommendations with the latest data from 2015. These estimates looked at the percent of adults meeting the intake recommendations by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio for the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC).

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Young Adults Who Eat Lots Fruits & Vegetables Lower Risk Of Coronary Artery Calcium

Michael D. Miedema, MD, MPH Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation Abbott Northwestern Hospital Minneapolis, MN

Dr. Michael Miedema

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Michael DMiedema, MD, MPH
Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation
Abbott Northwestern Hospital
Minneapolis, MN

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Miedema: A healthy diet is an essential component in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A dietary pattern high in fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular disease outcomes in multiple observation cohorts of middle-aged and older adults. However, the cardiovascular impact of fruit and vegetable intake in younger adults is less clear.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Miedema: To evaluate this relationship, we studied 2,506 young adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to determine the association between fruit and vegetable intake during young adulthood and subsequent development of coronary artery calcium 20 years later. After adjusting for age, gender, and lifestyle variables, including smoking and physical activity, we found an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable and subsequent coronary artery calcium across tertiles of fruit and vegetable intake (p-value <0.001). Individuals in the top third of fruit and vegetable intake at baseline had 26% lower odds of developing calcified plaque 20 years later. This inverse linear relationship remained significant after adjusting for fruit and vegetable intake at year 20 as well as after adjustment for other dietary variables such as dairy, nuts, fish, salt, and refined grains.

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Increasing Fruits & Vegetables In Diet May Not Lead To Weight Loss

Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D. Department of Biostatistics Ryals Public Health Bldg, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D.
Department of Biostatistics
Ryals Public Health Bldg,
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35294

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Kaiser: Recommendations to increase or home delivery of fruits and vegetables to increase intake results in no significant weight loss or gain in adults studied over 8-16 weeks.
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Stroke Risk Reduced by Increased Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

MedicalResearch Interview with:
Dr. Yan Qu
Qingdao Municipal hospital
Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Risk of Stroke A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Reply:
First, both fruits and vegetables were found inversely associated with risk of stroke, and the relationships might be linear.
Second, the inverse association of fruits and vegetables consumption with risk of stroke is consistent across subgroup analysis by outcome (stroke incidence and stroke mortality), location where the study was conducted (USA, Europe and Asia), sex (male and female), and stroke subtypes (ischemic and hemorrhagic).
Third, citrus fruits, leafy vegetables and apples/pears were found inversely associated with risk of stroke.
Fourth, very similar results were found in the subgroup analysis by status [yes: 0.78 (0.71-0.86) or no: 0.79 (0.74-0.85)] of adjusting for 6 or more of the 7 covariates (smoking, alcohol, blood pressure/hypertension, serum cholesterol, physical activity, body mass index, ≥3 dietary variables). These findings generally indicated that the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the reduced risk of stroke may not be the result of confounding by the known factors.

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