Brian J. Piper, PhD, MS
Assistant Professor of Neuroscience
Department of Basic Sciences,
Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine,
Scranton PA 18509
MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
Response: The U.S. accounts for five percent of the world population but more than 92 percent of the world’s spending on pharmacotherapies for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). According to the 2011 National Survey of Children’s Health, ADHD increased to 11.0 percent of U.S. children, seven percent of girls and 15 percent of boys. Interestingly, ADHD rates were much lower among Hispanic children.
The 2013 revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders broadened the criteria such that it became easier to diagnose adult ADHD. Together, we hypothesized that use of amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) would be increasing. We also predicted that there would be some regional differences in stimulant use.
The main findings of this study are that, between 2008-09 and 2014-15, amphetamine and opioid use among delivering women increased disproportionately across rural compared to urban counties in three of four census regions. By 2014-15, amphetamine use disorder was identified among approximately 1% of all deliveries in the rural western United States, which was higher than the incidence of opioid use in most regions.
Compared to opioid-related deliveries, amphetamine-related deliveries were associated with higher incidence of the majority of adverse gestational outcomes that we examined including pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, and severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Continue reading →
Larry B. Goldstein, MD, FAAN, FANA, FAHA
Ruth L. Works Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurology
Co-Director, Kentucky Neuroscience Institute
KY Clinic – University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40536
MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Extensive work in laboratory models over several decades show that d-amphetamine, combined with task-relevant experience, can facilitate recovery after stroke and traumatic brain injury affecting the cerebral cortex.
Results from clinical trials have been inconsistent, in part because preclinical data indicate that the effect of amphetamines as part of a regimen for stroke recovery is biologically complex. We conducted this multicenter pilot study to explore some of that complexity.