Hip Replacement Surgery Pain: No Benefit To IV Acetaminophen over Pills

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Geoffrey Westrich, MDDirector of ResearchAdult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement ServiceHospital for Special SurgeryNYC

Dr. Westrich

Geoffrey Westrich, MD
Director of Research
Adult Reconstruction and Joint Replacement Service
Hospital for Special Surgery
NYC 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recent mortality trends in the U.S. associated with opioid use disorders have brought to the forefront of national debate the desirability of minimizing the use of potentially addictive pain management therapies.  Pain management after hip replacement surgery is an important part of patient care, and  opioids are frequently given as a major part of postoperative pain management.

At the same time, multimodal analgesia, the administration of anesthetic agents and medications agents targeting multiple pain pathways, has seen increased popularity in pain management after hip replacement surgery.  At Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS), the multimodal protocol entails the use of several different anesthetic agents and medications both during and after surgery to control pain, minimize the use of opioids and reduce side effects.

The use of non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen allows for a reduction in opioid administration after surgery [1]. Acetaminophen, commonly known as Tylenol, has traditionally been administered orally, but more recently an intravenous (IV) preparation has become available.  IV acetaminophen after major orthopedic surgery was shown to provide effective analgesia and reduce morphine administration by 33%, compared to placebo [2].

Unless a patient is unable to take acetaminophen, it is commonly used as part of the multimodal protocol due to its efficacy and minimal contraindications. Although intravenous (IV) acetaminophen presents pharmacokinetic benefits, such as increasing both serum blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels more rapidly, there is limited analysis of its potential clinical advantages compared to oral acetaminophen.  We hypothesized that there could be a reduction in pain with activity, opioid usage, or opioid- related side effects among patients receiving IV acetaminophen compared to oral acetaminophen following hip replacement surgery  Continue reading

Effect of SSRIs and Depression On Revisions After Hip or Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc.   Associate Professor of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

Dr. Hilal Maradit Kremers

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc. 
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Depression and mood disorders are common comorbidities in patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty.  Based on previous research, there is evidence to suggest presence of depression in arthroplasty patients is associated with worse functional and clinical outcomes, such as complications, readmissions and mortality.  Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, it is important to identify strategies to effectively manage perioperative depression in an effort to improve arthroplasty outcomes.  One potential strategy is effective medical treatment of underlying depression which can potentially improve depression symptoms, thereby surgical outcomes.

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Physical Functioning Comparable To Peers After Total Hip Replacement

Dr. Kristi Elisabeth Heiberg PhD Post.doc Department of Medical Research Baerum Hospital Vestre Viken Hospital TrustMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Kristi Elisabeth Heiberg PhD Post.doc
Department of Medical Research
Baerum Hospital
Vestre Viken Hospital Trust

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Heiberg: This study is a long term follow-up of 60 patients who suffered from hip osteoarthritis and were treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA) approximately 5 years earlier. In a prior study, the patients participated in a RCT study, examining the effects of a supervised walking skill training program on physical functioning, pain and self-efficacy (1). The training program was performed between three and five months after surgery, and it was compared to a control group without supervised physiotherapy in the same time span. The results showed that immediately after the walking skill training intervention was completed, several outcome variables were statistically significant more improved in the training group than in the control group, and at one year after surgery the statistically significant effect on walking capacity (measured by the 6-min walk test) still sustained. Few long-term follow-up of RCTs regarding physical functioning in patients after total hip arthroplasty are previously published. Furthermore in another prior study, we examined the recovery of the total group of the same patients from preoperatively to one year after surgery (2). The results showed that the patients were statistically significant improved in all outcomes of physical functioning, pain and self-efficacy during the first year, but they still did not quite reach the level of healthy peers in walking capacity. In line with this, they also reported one year after surgery that they wanted to further improve their ability to walk and to participate in recreational activities (3). However, it seems that patients’ desires regarding physical activity are poorly understood and have received relatively little evaluation, although regular physical activity is considered to be one of the most important lifestyle behaviors affecting health. Only few prior studies have examined the long term recovery of physical functioning and the impact on physical activity.

Therefore, in this present 5-year follow-up study after total hip arthroplasty the aims were threefold.

  • First, to examine the long-term effect from the supervised walking skill training program on physical functioning, pain and self-efficacy;
  • Second, to examine the long-term recovery of physical functioning from one to five years; and
  • Third, to identify predictors of physical activity outcome five years after THA among personal and preoperative variables (4).

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Factors Identified For Lasting Total Hip Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sandrine Colas, MSc, MPH

Department of Epidemiology of Health Products
French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (ANSM)
Saint-Denis, France

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Total hip replacement (THR) is to replace a damaged coxofemoral joint with a prosthetic implant. Primary or secondary degenerative osteoarthritis of the hip joint is the main indication for THR (other indications are essentially trauma, which is more common in the elderly and mostly affects women over 80 years of age). The number of THR has increased in all industrialized countries, particularly on account of the ageng population.Total hip replacement is one of the most common and successful surgical procedures in modern practice. Although results are generally good, revision (consisting in changing one or all components of the implant) is sometimes necessary (about 1% per year). Prosthetic revision is a longer and more complex operation than primary implantation and it has a higher incidence of post-surgical complications.

Several prosthetic revision risk factors have been highlighted recently in published studies, but results relating to prosthetic and/or patient characteristics and total hip replacement survivorship tend to vary. The existence of an association between the fixation technique and/or bearing surface and prosthetic survivorship has yet to be established.

The main aim of our work was therefore to compare total hip replacement short-term survivorship according to cement type and bearing surface, in a large population of subjects who have undergone total hip replacement for reasons other than trauma (25%) and bone tumor (<0.1%), taking prosthetic revision risk factors (age, gender, comorbidities, concomitant medication, implanting center, etc.) into account.

Total hip replacement characteristics are related to early implant survivorship. After 33 months of follow-up, antibiotic-impregnated cemented THRs have a better prognosis. MoM total hip replacemenst have a slightly worse prognosis.

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Total Hip Replacement Surgery: Exercise May Postpone Need

Ida C. Svege
 PhD student / Physical Therapist 
NAR Norwegian research centre for Active Rehabilitation
Department of Orthopaedics Oslo University Hospital / NIMI / Norwegian School of Sports Sciences
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ida C. Svege
 PhD student / Physical Therapist 
NAR
Norwegian research centre for Active Rehabilitation
Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo University Hospital / NIMI / Norwegian School of Sports Sciences

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main finding of the study was that exercise therapy in addition to patient education resulted in significantly higher 6-year cumulative survival of the native hip to total hip replacement compared with patient education only. Over the 6 year follow-up period the need for total hip replacement was reduced by 44% in the group who received both exercise therpay and patient education. Also, better self-reported physical function was demonstrated in the group who received exercise therapy and patient education, suggesting that the lower surgery rate in this group were due to better hip function, with or without the presence of pain.
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