Author Interviews / 31.03.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arch G. Mainous III, PhD Professor Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy Professor and Vice Chair for Research Department of Community Health and Family Medicine University of Florida MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We are always concerned about infections from antibiotic resistant bacteria. When the bacteria are resistant to our current treatments this lengthens the time and severity of the illness. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of community and healthcare associated infections. These range from skin infections to invasive infections and even death. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is of particular concern and is a burden on the health care system. Importantly, patients colonized, not infected, with MRSA are more likely to develop MRSA infections and patients with MRSA infections have increased risk of hospital length of stay and even death. We are always concerned about infections from antibiotic resistant bacteria. When the bacteria are resistant to our current treatments this lengthens the time and severity of the illness. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of community and healthcare associated infections. These range from skin infections to invasive infections and even death. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is of particular concern and is a burden on the health care system. Importantly, patients colonized, not infected, with MRSA are more likely to develop MRSA infections and patients with MRSA infections have increased risk of hospital length of stay and even death. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Infections, Pediatrics / 16.09.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carrie C. Coughlin, MD Member of the Society for Pediatric Dermatology Assistant Professor, Dermatology Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics Washington University School of Medicine / St. Louis Children's Hospital   Cristopher C. Briscoe, MD Dermatology Resident, PGY-2 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Briscoe: Superinfection of atopic dermatitis (AD) in pediatric patients is a common complication. Our study sought to determine the best empiric antibiotic choice for these patients while a bacterial culture is pending. We retrospectively analyzed 182 skin cultures from pediatric atopic dermatitis patients seen in the outpatient setting over five years and found that 170 (93.4%) grew Staphylococcus aureus. Of these, 130 (76.5%) grew methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), 37 (21.8%) grew methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and 3 (1.8%) grew both MSSA and MRSA. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, sex, race, or dilute bleach bath usage and MRSA infection. Interestingly, as compared to a separate group of pediatric atopic dermatitis patients seen in the emergency room, our patients had lower rates of MSSA susceptibility to doxycycline and MRSA susceptibility to TMP-SMX. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hand Washing, Infections, MRSA, Pediatrics / 15.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Bart Infant” by Bart Everson is licensed under CC BY 2.0Gwen M. Westerling, BSN, RN, CIC Infection Preventionist Helen DeVos Children's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The setting of this study is a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) with 106 beds. In 2016, an increase in Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) was noted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) caused by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) through diligent Infection Prevention Surveillance. When we reviewed the literature we found the SA is a common skin colonizer and can be a problem for neonates with immature skin and immune systems. Staphylococcus aureus is easily transmitted through direct contact with skin, the contaminated hands of health care workers, the environment and equipment. We also found one study that listed skin to skin care as a risk factor for acquisition of SA. Before we saw the increase in infections some process changes occurred in our NICU that included increased skin to skin care, meaningful touch between neonates and parents, and two person staff care. We hypothesized that the process changes were exposing neonates to increased amounts of Staphylococcus aureus and contributing to the increase in infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, MRSA / 04.10.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mr. Jonathan Shahbazian, MPH Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our study was designed to investigate risk factors for drug resistance in MRSA found in dust on surfaces in the home. We undertook this investigation because we were concerned first that people living in the home could pick up MRSA from these surfaces, and second, that if they picked up drug-resistant MRSA, it would be more difficult to treat them. Our main finding was that use of antibiotics by either people or pets in the home, as well as use of biocidal cleaning products, was associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in home MRSA. This study is the first to report that use clindamycin in either humans or domestic animals was not associated with risk of MDR in the home environment. We also found that mupirocin treatment was associated with a slight increase in mupirocin resistance in the household environment, which could complicate decolonization efforts that rely on use of nasal mupirocin ointment. We found that 100% of our MRSA isolates from rural homes were MDR, suggesting living in a rural household may be a risk factor. We also found the presence of domestic pets was associated with MDR MRSA in the home environment while the presence of unwanted pests, such as mice or cockroaches, was associated with non-MDR MRSA strains at the three-month visit. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Pharmacology / 09.02.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Fernanda Buzzola IMPaM, UBA-CONICET MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Staphylococcus aureus represents a serious problem to public health due to methicillin-resistance and the bacterial persistence over a long period of time in the host. Approximately the 20% of the human population is at risk to acquire an endogenous infection by S. aureus as a consequence of its asymptomatic nasal colonization. Aspirin, the main source of salicylic acid in the human host, is currently taken by millions of human beings worldwide without medical prescription and widely indicated for defined purposes, including prevention of coronary thrombosis. Salicylic acid is a plant hormone known too for its use as a key ingredient in anti-acne preparations and medications for skin conditions. We also consume mild doses of salicylic acid when we eat fruits and vegetables. Iron is an important trace element for the human body and plays an essential role in blood formation. The metabolism of many bacteria, including S. aureus, also depends on the availability of iron molecules. Salicylic acid forms complexes with iron ions in the blood and so deprives not only us but also the staphylococcal bacteria of this element. S. aureus modifies its metabolism if the iron content is insufficient. The microorganism reacts to the changed – from its perspective, negative – conditions through the intensified formation of a biofilm, a sort of layer of slime formed by the aggregation of individual bacteria. The enhanced biofilm production allows the bacteria to survive for an even longer period under unfavourable living conditions. (more…)
Asthma, Author Interviews, Infections / 06.02.2015

Meghan F. Davis, DVM MPH PhD Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Health Sciences Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meghan F. Davis, DVM MPH PhD Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Health Sciences Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Davis: Asthma rates have been on the rise, particularly in children. Interventions targeted at allergens and other environmental factors known to exacerbate asthma are only partially successful, suggesting a role for novel drivers of morbidity among existing patients with asthma. In this study, we evaluated associations between nasal colonization with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and symptoms related to wheeze and asthma using data from the nationally-representative NHANES database. We found that S. aureus nasal colonization was associated with asthma symptoms in children and young adults, but not in older adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA / 15.10.2014

Andre Kalil, M.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine Director, Transplant ID Program University of Nebraska Nebraska Medical Center Omaha, NE 68198-5400MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andre Kalil, M.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine Director, Transplant ID Program University of Nebraska Nebraska Medical Center Omaha, NE 68198-5400 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kalil: In recent years, physicians treating staph infections with vancomycin have seen an increase in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial agent that inhibits the growth of a microorganism. This condition is referred to as vancomycin “MIC creep.” It is an indicator that the bacteria might be developing a reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. There also have been reports suggesting that elevations in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with increased treatment failure and death. To determine the effectiveness of vancomycin and other newer antibiotics used to treat Staphylococcus aureus, the UNMC team analyzed nearly 8,300 episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections from patients around the U.S. and in several other countries. The adjusted absolute risk of mortality among patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections with high-vancomycin MIC was not statistically different from patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections with low-vancomycin MIC. (more…)
Author Interviews, MRSA / 15.08.2014

dr_kyle_popovichMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kyle J. Popovich, MD, MS Rush University Medical Center Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Popovich: Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at body sites outside the nares was common, with more than half of all colonized individuals having MRSA colonization in the rectal or groin areas.  Resistance to mupirocin was uncommon and molecular testing showed no signs of resistance to chlorhexidine gluconate. (more…)