Author Interviews, Infections, Kidney Disease / 18.09.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_44597" align="alignleft" width="182"]Ben Roediger PhD Head of the Skin Inflammation Group within Professor Wolfgang Weninger’s Immune Imaging Laboratory Centenary Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney,  Camperdown,, Australia Dr. Roediger[/caption] Ben Roediger PhD Head of the Skin Inflammation Group within Professor Wolfgang Weninger’s Immune Imaging Laboratory Centenary Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown,, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We use several strains of mice for our research, including animals with immunodeficiencies. One of our lines started succumbing to kidney disease and we decided to investigate.
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, Pediatrics, Respiratory, Vitamin D / 18.07.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_35936" align="alignleft" width="200"]Jonathon Maguire MD MSc FRCPC Scientist, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute Dr. Maguire[/caption] Jonathon Maguire MD MSc FRCPC Scientist, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute Staff Pediatrician, Department of Pediatrics, St. Michael’s Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Vitamin D has been hypothesized as being protective of seasonal viral upper respiratory tract infections.  In this randomized clinical trial, high dose wintertime vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/day) was compared with standard-dose vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/day) among 703 children.  The number of laboratory confirmed viral upper respiratory tract infections was not statistically different between groups.
Author Interviews, Infections, PLoS / 27.03.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_22813" align="alignleft" width="200"]MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Cameron Stewart PhD Team Leader within the Emerging Infectious Diseases Program CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Dr. Cameron Stewart[/caption] Dr. Cameron Stewart PhD Team Leader within the Emerging Infectious Diseases Program CSIRO Biosecurity Flagship Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Stewart: Hendra and Nipah viruses (referred to jointly as henipaviruses) are deadly cousins of the more common mumps, measles, and respiratory syncytial viruses, all members of the paramyxovirus family. Henipavirus outbreaks are on the rise, but little is known about the viruses, partly because research has to be undertaken under extreme containment conditions.  Our team performs research at the largest high containment facility in the Asia-Pacific region, the CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong, Australia. To understand the henipavirus infection cycle and to identify targets for new antiviral therapies, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify the host molecules required by henipaviruses for infection. The host gene with the largest impact, called fibrillarin, codes for a protein present in the nucleolus. Inhibiting fibrillarin impaired henipavirus infection greater than 1,000-fold in human cells.  We examined closely which step of the viral life cycle was blocked by interfering with fibrillarin function, and found it was required for the early synthesis of viral RNA. Results from our study suggest that fibrillarin could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections. This research was undertaken by an international team of researchers from CSIRO, the Victorian Centre for Functional Genomics, Duke-NUS, the University of Georgia and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Author Interviews, Lancet, Neurological Disorders, Pediatrics, Respiratory / 31.01.2015

Samuel Dominguez MD Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, COMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samuel Dominguez MD Departments of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Children's Hospital Colorado and University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, CO Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dominguez: Due to global poliovirus eradication efforts, clusters of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and/or cranial nerve dysfunction in children are rare and associated with few pathogens, primarily enteroviruses and flaviviruses.  Our study reports the first geographically and temporally defined cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children associated with an outbreak of EV-D68 respiratory illness, strengthening the potential link between EV-D68 and neurologic disease in children.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 19.08.2014

Suzanne Schuh, MD, FRCP(C), FAAP, ABPEM Staff Paediatrician, Division of Paediatric Emergency Medicine Senior Associate Scientist, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children Professor of Paediatrics, University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Suzanne Schuh, MD, FRCP(C), FAAP, ABPEM Staff Paediatrician, Division of Paediatric Emergency Medicine Senior Associate Scientist, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children Professor of Paediatrics, University of Toronto Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Schuh: Our study shows that in previously healthy infants presenting to the Emergency Department with mild to moderate bronchiolitis (a viral lower respiratory tract disease producing breathing distress) who had their oxygen saturation measurements artificially elevated by a physiologically small amount experienced significantly reduced rate of hospitalizations within 72 hours compared to infants with unaltered oximetry readings.
Author Interviews, Dengue, Ebola, Genetic Research, Infections, NEJM, NIH / 24.04.2014

Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) LHD, NIAID, NIH Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rosenzweig: We diagnosed a disease called CDG-IIb in two siblings with severe development issues and very low levels of immunoglobulins, which include infection-fighting antibodies. These children were referred to the NIAID Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic through the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program. CDG-IIb is an extremely rare congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), with only one other case reported. The genetic defect of the disease disrupts glycosylation, the process for attaching and trimming sugars from proteins. Almost 50% of our proteins have sugars attached, and these are called glycoproteins. They include immunoglobulins and also some viral glycoproteins that are made when cells are infected by a virus. The spread of some viruses, including HIV and influenza, depend on viral glycoproteins in order to infect additional cells and form viral protective shields. We found that this type of virus was less able to replicate, infect other cells, or create adequate protective shields in CDG-IIb patient cells because of the glycosylation defect. In comparison, adenovirus, poliovirus, and vaccinia virus, which either do not rely on glycosylation or do not form protective glycoprotein shields, replicated normally when added to both CDG-IIb and healthy cells.
Author Interviews, Dengue, Infections, NEJM, Respiratory / 27.02.2014

Valérie D'Acremont, MD, PhD Group leader Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Basel | Switzerland Médecin-adjointe, PD-MER Travel clinic | Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine | University hospital of Lausanne | SwitzerlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Valérie D'Acremont, MD, PhD Group leader Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Basel | Switzerland Médecin-adjointe, PD-MER Travel clinic | Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine | University hospital of Lausanne | Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. D'Acremont: We discovered that, in a rural and an urban area of Tanzania, half of the children with fever (temperature >38°C) had an acute respiratory infection, mainly of the upper tract (5% only had radiological pneumonia). These infections were mostly of viral origin, in particular influenza. The other children had systemic viral infections such as HHV6, parvovirus B19, EBV or CMV. Overall viral diseases represented 71% of the cases. Only a minority (22%) had a bacterial infection such as typhoid fever, urinary tract infection or sepsis due to bacteremia. Malaria was found in only 10% of the children, even in the rural setting.