Dietary Fiber Promotes Beneficial Bacteria, Improving Glucose Control in Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Liping Zhao PhD, Professor Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers University-New Brunswick NJ

Dr. Zhao

Liping Zhao PhD, Professor
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
School of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Rutgers University-New Brunswick NJ

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Microbes in the human gut (collectively known as the gut microbiota) provide many functions that are important for human health. A notable example is that some gut bacteria are able to ferment non-digestible carbohydrates in our diet, e.g. dietary fibers, to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These SCFAs nourish our gut epithelial cells, reduce inflammation, and play a role in appetite control. Deficiency of SCFAs has been associated with many diseases including type 2 diabetes. Many gut bacteria have the genes (and therefore the capacity) to produce SCFAs from carbohydrate fermentation. However, we know little about how these bacteria, as individual strains and as a group, actually respond to an increased supply of carbohydrates. This is key to improve clinical efficacy of dietary fiber interventions to improve human health. Continue reading

Prebiotin™ Fiber Supplement Tested in NIH/NIDDK Pilot Study In End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ron Walborn Jr. Prebiotin CEO

Ron Walborn Jr.

Ron Walborn Jr.
Prebiotin CEO 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The product Prebiotin™ Prebiotic Fiber was brought to market in 2007 by Dr. Frank Jackson, a gastroenterologist out of Harrisburg, PA. He found through 40 years of experience with his patients that a variety of digestive issues benefitted from daily supplementation with a soluble prebiotic fiber, specifically, oligofructose-enriched inulin (OEI) derived from chicory root.

In the late summer of 2012, Prebiotin caught the attention of Dr. Dominic Raj at the Internal Medicine Department of George Washington University. Dr. Raj’s laboratory showed that patients with kidney disease may have a higher level of release of endotoxins like p-Cresol sulfate and indole from the bacteria in the gut, which can move into the bloodstream and promote inflammation.

This early work was the basis of a successful grant application. Researchers were interested in investigating the therapeutic potential of altering the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome in this patient population, based on the understanding that by building up the levels of healthy bacteria in the gut, undesirable bacteria is eventually crowded out, thereby reducing the release of harmful endotoxins into the system.

Continue reading

Without Fiber, Gut Bacteria Begin To Eat Our Intestinal Lining

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mahesh Desai, PhD Principal Investigator Allergology - Immunology - Inflammation Research Unit Department of Infection and Immunity Luxembourg Institute of Health Luxembourg

Dr. Mahesh Desai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Over the last few decades, our intake of dietary fiber has fallen drastically mainly due to the consumption of processed food, which has been connected to increased cases of intestinal diseases including colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The gut microbiota is essential for us as it allows our body to digest dietary fiber contained in fruits and vegetables, that could otherwise not be processed. Changed physiologies and abundances of the gut microbiota following a fiber-deprived diet have been commonly linked to several intestinal diseases. However, the mechanisms behind these connections have remained poorly understood.

Continue reading

Dietary Fiber May Reduce Risk Of Diabetes

Dagfinn Aune, PhD student Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Imperial College LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dagfinn Aune, PhD student
Norwegian University of Science and Technology and
Imperial College London

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There are more than 360 million people worldwide that are affected by diabetes, and this number is projected to increase to more than 550 million by 2030, with serious consequences for the health and economy of both developed and developing countries. While previous research has found an association between increased dietary fibre intake and a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, most of these data come from the United States, and amounts and sources of fiber intake differ substantially between countries. In this article the we evaluated the associations between total fiber as well as fiber from cereal, fruit, and vegetable sources, and new-onset type 2 diabetes in a large European cohort across eight countries, in the EPIC-InterAct Study (and included 12403 type 2 diabetes cases and 16835 sub-cohort members). We also conducted a meta-analysis where we combined the data from this study with those from 18 other independent studies from across the globe.

We found that participants with the highest total fiber intake (more than 26 g/day) had an 18% lower risk of developing diabetes compared to those with the lowest total fiber intake (less than 19g/day), after adjusting for the effect of other lifestyle and dietary factors. When the results were adjusted for body mass index (BMI) as a marker of obesity, higher total fiber intake was found to be no longer associated with a lower risk of developing diabetes, suggesting that the beneficial association with fiber intake may be mediated at least in part by BMI. In other words, dietary fiber may help people maintain a healthy weight, which in turn reduces the chances of developing type 2 diabetes.

In a meta-analysis of the EPIC-InterAct study and 18 other independent studies (>41000 type 2 diabetes cases) we found that the risk was reduced by 9% for each 10 g/day increase in total fiber intake and 25% for each 10 g/day increase in cereal fiber intake. There was no statistically significant association between fruit or vegetable fiber intake and diabetes.

Continue reading

Dietary Fiber: Potential Mechanism of Appetite Suppression Discovered

Professor Gary Frost PhD RD Head of the Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group NIHR Senior Investigator Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism Faculty of Medicine Imperial College Hammersmith Campus London W12 ONNMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor Gary Frost PhD RD
Head of the Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group
NIHR Senior Investigator
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Faculty of Medicine Imperial College Hammersmith Campus
London W12 ONN

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? 

Prof. Frost: That acetate that is derived from the fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon by the microbiota is taken up by the hypothalamus in the brain.  In the hypothalamus the way the cells metabolize acetate creates a signal that suppresses appetite
Continue reading

Post MI: Increasing Dietary Fiber Decreased Mortality

Shanshan Li, Doctoral candidate Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02115, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Shanshan Li, Doctoral candidate
Department of Epidemiology
Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue
Boston, MA 02115, USA


MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: This is the first study to show that greater intake of dietary fiber,
especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all-cause
mortality. Participants increased their average dietary fiber intake
after myocardial infarction (MI), and the greater the increase, the lower was the risk of
subsequent all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Overall, the
benefits for increased fiber intake were strongest for fiber from
cereal and grain sources.

Continue reading