Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Gender Differences / 24.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tom Chang PhD, BS, MIT Associate Professor of Finance and Business Economics Marshall School of Business MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There have been many studies showing that women prefer higher indoor temperatures than men, however nobody looked at the effect of temperature on performance. We show that the battle for the thermostat is not just about the comfort. It is much more – in our experiment, women’s cognitive functioning is the best at high temperatures, whereas men’s at low temperatures. Significantly, the positive effect of increased temperatures on women’s performance is much stronger than the negative effect on men. The most surprising was that the effect of temperature on women is so strong. For instance, at low temperatures, men outperform women in a simple math task. However, when we increase the temperature, women become better and better (1.76% increase of solved tasks with each 1 Celsius increase), and at high temperatures women and men perform on the same level – the gender difference disappears. 
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CDC, Education, Sexual Health / 27.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27398" align="alignleft" width="142"]Laura Kann, Ph.D. Chief of the School-Based Surveillance Branch Division of Adolescent and School Health CDC Dr. Laura Kann[/caption] Laura Kann, Ph.D. Chief of the School-Based Surveillance Branch Division of Adolescent and School Health CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: CDC has been using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to collect data on the sexual identity of high school students at the state and local levels and on the prevalence of health risk behaviors among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students for many years. Starting with the 2015 YRBS cycle, we had enough support to add questions to the national YRBS to provide the first ever nationally representative look at health risk behaviors among these students.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Stroke, Tobacco Research / 23.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joni Valdemar Lindbohm, MD Department of Public Health University of Helsinki, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Approximately 1-6% percent of people carry an unruptured intracranial aneurysm but most of these never rupture during lifetime and cause subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In SAH, the rupture of an aneurysm causes bleeding into the lining between the brain’s surface and underlying tissue. Despite advances in operative techniques, SAH can lead to death in up to 45% of the cases. Because life style risk factors are critical in development of subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is important to characterize the risk factor profile of those with an elevated risk. Widely accepted risk factors for SAH are increasing age, smoking, hypertension and female sex. However, the reasons for an elevated risk in women have remained uncovered and the effect of smoking habits are not well understood.
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, JACC, McGill / 13.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_21585" align="alignleft" width="112"]Dr. Roxanne Pelletier Dr. Roxanne Pelletier[/caption] Roxanne Pelletier, PhD Divisions of General Internal Medicine and of Clinical Epidemiology Department of Medicine The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre Montreal, Quebec, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Pelletier: The increased risk of mortality in young females compared with males after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain difficult to understand. As gender-related characteristics has evolved considerably in the last decades (e.g. hours of paid work have increased significantly among women), we hypothesized that these sex differences in adverse outcomes following  acute coronary syndrome are partly explained by gender, rather than by biological sex itself. As explained in our paper, "Gender reflects social norms and expectations ascribed to women and men, in contrast to biological characteristics that are captured by sex. Gender can be referred to as the nonbiological aspects of being male or female (e.g., social roles, personality traits).Our team had previously shown that sex differences in access to care for ACS were partly explained by these gender-related characteristics, such that both men and women presenting with acute coronary syndrome and with personality traits and social roles traditionally ascribed to women (e.g. sensitive to the needs of others, shy, household  responsibility, child care) were waiting longer before diagnostic tests and were less likely to receive invasive treatment procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention, when compared to men and women with masculine gender-related characteristics. We then aimed to assess whether gender was also playing a role in sex differences in adverse outcomes following acute coronary syndrome.