Mutations Linked to Scarring Hair Loss in African American Women Identified

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cicatricial Alopecia Courtesy of Dr. Amy McMichael MD The Department of Dermatology Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

Cicatricial Alopecia
Courtesy of Dr. Amy McMichael MD
The Department of Dermatology
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Winston-SalemNorth Carolina

Eli Sprecher MD PhD
Professor and Chair, Division of Dermatology
Deputy Director General for R&D and Innovation
Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Frederick Reiss Chair of Dermatology
Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel and

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a form of hair loss (alopecia) which is extremely common and affects one in every 20 women of African origin. It starts usually during the fourth decade of life. Because it can be inherited from mothers to their children, it is thought to have a genetic basis. On the other hand, it is known to mainly affect women who use to groom their hair intensively. Thus it was thought that the disease stems from some form of inherited susceptibility to the damage incurred to the hair follicle by grooming habits.

In the study we published, we searched for the genetic basis of CCCA.

In contrast with the common form of alopecia (androgenetic alopecia or female pattern alopecia), CCCA is associated with scarring of the scalp skin, which means that once hair is lost, it will likely not re-grow.

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Restoring Mitochondrial Function Reverses Wrinkles and Hair Loss – in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by a Candida sp. fungal organism. CW = cell wall, PM = plasma membrane, M = mitochondria, V = vacuole, and N = nucleus.

This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by a Candida sp. fungal organism. CW = cell wall, PM = plasma membrane, M = mitochondria, V = vacuole, and N = nucleus
CDC image

Keshav K. Singh, Ph.D.
Joy and Bill Harbert Endowed Chair in Cancer Genetics
Professor of Genetics, Pathology and Environmental Health
Founding Editor-in-Chief, Mitochondrion Journal
Director, Cancer Genetics Program
The University of Alabama at Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35294

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Decline in mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondrial function has been observed in aging humans. We created mouse to mimic those condition to show that decline in mitochondrial function leads to development of wrinkles and loss of hair.

The main finding is that by restoring mitochondrial function we can reverse skin wrinkles to normal healthy skin and also regain hair growth.  Continue reading

Cooling System Can Prevent Hair Loss During Chemotherapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Julie Rani Nangia, M.D. Assistant Professor Breast Center - Clinic Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX, US

Dr. Julie Nangia

Julie Rani Nangia, M.D.
Assistant Professor
Breast Center – Clinic
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX, US

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study was fueled by the feedback from women undergoing chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer. One of the most distressing side effects of their treatment is hair loss. It robs them of their anonymity and, for many, their femininity. Scalp cooling therapy has been available for a few years in the UK, but has faced obstacles in FDA clearance in the states. The makers of the scalp cooling device used in this study, Paxman Coolers Ltd., have a personal connection to breast cancer, as the company founder’s wife passed away from the disease.

This was the first randomized scalp cooling study, and it shows that the Paxman Hair Loss Prevention System is an effective therapy for reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The results show a 50% increase in hair preservation of grade 0 or 1, meaning use of a scarf or wig is not necessary, in patients who received the scalp cooling therapy as opposed to those who did not.

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Immunotherapy Tofacitinib Can Halt Alopecia Areata

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Morton Scheinberg, MD, PhD
From Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein and Hospital AACD,
São Paulo, and
Clinica Dermatosineida, Maringa, Parana, Brazil.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: That universal hair loss associated with a localized autoimmune reaction on the cells involved with the hair follicles can be halted with tofacitinib.

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Male Pattern Hair Loss Drugs Risk Significant Side Effects

Abdulmaged Traish; Photo by Vernon Doucette for Boston University Photography


MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Abdulmaged M. Traish, MBA, Ph.D.
Professor of Biochemistry
Professor of Urology
Boston University School of Medicine
Boston, MA 02118

 

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

 Dr. Traish: This study was undertaken to evaluate the data in the contemporary literature on the use of finasteride and dutasteride for treatment of ( benign prostatic hypertrophy) BPH and androgenetic alopecia (AGA). These drugs were proven effective in management of patients withy BPH andandrogenetic alopecia; however, these drugs inhibit a family of enzymes widely distributed in many tissues and organs and therefore may have undesirable effects. Most importantly, few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the central nervous system. The adverse impact of these drugs on sexual function and well-being in a subset of patients raised the questions that we do not know much about the safety of such drugs.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

 Dr. Traish: The main findings of this study is that these agents, while useful in treatment of BPH and androgenetic alopecia, exert undesirable side effects on sexual function and well-being. More importantly, limited data is available on the impact of these agents on the central nervous system.
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Scalp Cooling Prevents Chemotherapy Induced Hair Loss

N. T. Georgopoulos, PhD Senior Lecturer in Biological Sciences Department of Biological Sciences School of Applied Sciences University of HuddersfieldMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
N. T. Georgopoulos, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Biological Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences
School of Applied Sciences
University of Huddersfield

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Georgopoulos: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effect of chemotherapy and the anxiety caused by the prospect of Chemotherapy-induced alopecia can cause some cancer patients to even refuse treatment. Various classes of chemotherapeutic drugs such as taxanes (e.g. docetaxel), alkylating agents (e.g. cyclophosphamide) and anthracyclines/DNA intercalating agents (e.g. doxorubicin) target tumour cells due to their rapid division rate; however, these drugs also target the hair matrix keratinocytes, the most rapidly dividing cell subset in the hair follicle, thus resulting in follicle damage and ultimately hair loss.

The only currently available preventative treatment for Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is head (scalp) cooling; scalp cooling during chemotherapy drug administration can substantially reduce hair loss and has been used since the 1970s. However, until recently there was inadequate biological data to support the cyto-protective capacity of cooling; yet such experimental evidence would be important to convince clinicians and patients of the efficacy of cooling. Moreover, it is not clear why in some patients scalp cooling fully protects from Chemotherapy-induced alopecia whereas in other patients it is less efficient. Finally, although scalp cooling can substantially reduce the incidence of hair loss in response to individual drugs, for some combined treatment regimens scalp cooling has much lower (and often quite limited) reported efficacy. Collectively, the need to answer these questions, and to provide ‘real’ experimental data that will support the ability of cooling to ‘rescue’ cells from the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy drugs, led us to carry out the study.

Using several cell culture models (including human hair follicular keratinocytes), we showed for the first time that cooling dramatically reduces or completely prevents the cytotoxic capacity of drugs such as docetaxel, doxorubicin and the active metabolite of cyclophosphamide (4-OH-CP), whilst combinatorial treatment showed relatively poor response to cooling. Our experimental, in vitro findings are in close agreement with clinical observations. Moreover, we have provided evidence that the minimum temperature achieved may be critical in determining the efficacy of cooling; as the lowest temperature achieved by scalp cooling can differ between patients (our unpublished observations), our findings may also explain why cooling protects from Chemotherapy-induced alopecia better in some patients but not others. Continue reading