Central Care Improved Survival of Extremely Premature Infants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, ProfessorKarolinska Institutet & Karolinska University HospitalStockholm, Sweden 

Dr. Norman

Mikael Norman, MD, PhD, Professor
Karolinska Institutet & Karolinska University Hospital
Stockholm, Sweden 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: So far, preterm birth has been difficult to predict and prevent. In particular, extremely preterm birth has continued to be an issue in terms of optimal care before and after birth, costs and long term health outcomes. Therefore, studies on how the management and outcome varies over time in these patients are important.

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Poor Fitness and Obesity in Early Life Linked to Greater Disability as Adult

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Pontus Henriksson | PhD and Registered Dietitian Postdoctoral Researcher | SFO-V Fellow Department of Biosciences and Nutrition Karolinska Institutet

Dr. Henriksson

Pontus Henriksson | PhD and Registered Dietitian
Postdoctoral Researcher | SFO-V Fellow
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition
Karolinska Institutet 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: In many countries, disability pensions are granted to working-aged persons who are likely to never work full-time again because of a chronic disease or injury diagnosed by a physician. In addition to serving as an important indicator of chronic disease, disability pensions are associated with high societal costs.

Hence, we examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity (two potentially modifiable factors) were associated with disability pension later in life.

Our main findings were that low physical fitness and/or obesity during adolescence, were strongly associated with disability pension later in life due to a wide range of diseases and causes.  Continue reading

Tinnitus: Study of Adoptees Suggests Genetic Predisposition

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher R. Cederroth | Ph.D. Docent Associate Professor Experimental Audiology | Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Karolinska Institutet  Sweden

Dr. Cederroth

Christopher R. Cederroth | Ph.D. Docent
Associate Professor
Experimental Audiology | Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Tinnitus is experienced is experienced by a large proportion of the population and affects more than 15% of the population worldwide (estimated 70 million people in Europe). However, for near 3% of the population, tinnitus becomes a chronic bothersome and incapacitating symptom. Severe tinnitus interferes with sleep, mood, and concentration and thus impacts life quality, ultimately leading to sick leave and disability pension. A high cost to society has been reported, and since the prevalence of tinnitus has been predicted to double in Europe by 2050, there is an important need for an effective treatment. And today there are none, with the exception of cognitive behavioral therapy, which helps coping with it but does not remove the tinnitus. There has been a number of innovative treatment approaches, but they are overall not successful and it is now agreed that it is likely because tinnitus is a heterogeneous condition – meaning that we cannot consider tinnitus a single entity but an ensemble of different forms or subtypes, which need to be defined.

Tinnitus has always been considered a condition influenced by environmental factors, but our initial studies suggested the opposite. Adoption studies are excellent in showing the influence of shared-environment effects and establish a genetic basis for a disease or a trait. It allows to test the transmission of a trait between the adoptee and their biological or their adoptive parent. Transmission via the biological parent is expected to be due to a heritable genetic effect, while transmission via the adoptive parent is associated with home-environment, the so-called shared-environmental effect. We used medical registry data to identify tinnitus patients and adoptees.

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Does Routine Oxygen After Heart Attack Reduce Risk of Dying?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robin Hofmann, MD PhD  Senior consultant cardiologist and researcher Department of clinical science and education Södersjukhuset, at Karolinska Institute

Dr. Hofmann

Robin Hofmann, MD PhD
Senior consultant cardiologist and researcher
Department of clinical science and education
Södersjukhuset, at Karolinska Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Oxygen has been used to treat patients suffering a heart attack for more than a century, despite the fact that such treatment has not had any scientifically proven effect on patients who have normal oxygen levels in their blood. Since the turn of the millennium, researchers worldwide have started to question whether oxygen therapy for heart attacks is ineffective – or may even be harmful.

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