Author Interviews, CMAJ, Orthopedics, Rheumatology, Surgical Research / 02.02.2021 Interview with: Codie Primeau, MSc Physical Therapy Student & Ph.D. Candidate (Combined MPT/Ph.D.) Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic Western University London, ON, Canada What is the background for this study? Response: High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgery for patients with varus alignment (bowed legs) and earlier-stage knee osteoarthritis. By correcting alignment, HTO shifts load to less diseased parts of the knee. One of the goals of HTO is to delay or even prevent the need for knee replacement surgery later.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Surgical Research / 19.05.2020 Interview with: Alyson Cavanaugh, PT, PhD Joint Doctoral Program in Epidemiology University of California, San Diego/ San Diego State University What is the background for this study? Response: More than 700,000 total knee replacements are performed annually in the United States, but there is a racial disparity in outcomes after the surgery. If the knee replacement procedure is considered a highly effective treatment, why don't black women present with the same outcomes as whites? Physical function when going into surgery has a large impact on the potential functional outcomes after surgery. Our hypothesis was that black women were presenting to surgery with poorer physical function, which was contributing to poorer functional outcomes after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews / 18.03.2019 Interview with: Darwin Chen, MD Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Periprosthetic joint infection unfortunately remains a leading cause of total knee arthroplasty failure. One method of mitigating the risk of PJI is to use antibiotic loaded bone cement in a prophylactic fashion. While the use of antibiotic cement makes inherent sense, the decision is not as simple as it seems. There are potential side effects such as renal damage, antibiotic hypersensitivity, and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics decrease the mechanical strength of cement fixation, which may impact component loosening. Additionally, antibiotic cement is significantly more expensive than standard cement, driving up cost. Currently there is no consensus on if antibiotic cement truly reduces infection risk and there are many conflicting studies. The purpose of our study is the use a large national database to evaluate real world utilization patterns of antibiotic cement, and assess outcomes, complications, and cost associated with antibiotic cement usage. Our hypothesis was that antibiotic cement is associated with a decreased risk of infection and no increased risk of systemic complications.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedics, Pain Research, Surgical Research / 01.08.2017 Interview with: Michael A. Mont, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Cleveland Clinic Cleveland, OH What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major hurdle for both the patients and the orthopaedists. Many analgesic modalities are currently in use, and can be used alone or in combination in order to augment their effect. Addition of local anesthetic analgesia has been shown to improve pain control and reduce opioid consumption during postoperative period. However, the effects of this analgesia tend to dissipate with time, with the longest duration of action (bupivacaine) of approximately 12 hours. Therefore, long acting local anesthetic (liposomal bupivacaine) has been developed in order to expand the duration of effectiveness of pain relief for up to 96 hours. Many studies evaluated the effectiveness of this anesthetic and demonstrated contradictory results, however, they did not use the same methods and infiltration technique. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study at 16 hospitals using optimal infiltration techniques. Our study demonstrated significant improvement in pain, decreased opioid consumption, increased time to first opioid rescue, more opioid free patients in liposomal bupivacaine cohort. In addition, there were no unexpected safety concerns. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Mayo Clinic / 15.03.2017 Interview with: Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc.  Associate Professor of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine What is the background for this study? Response: Depression and mood disorders are common comorbidities in patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty.  Based on previous research, there is evidence to suggest presence of depression in arthroplasty patients is associated with worse functional and clinical outcomes, such as complications, readmissions and mortality.  Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, it is important to identify strategies to effectively manage perioperative depression in an effort to improve arthroplasty outcomes.  One potential strategy is effective medical treatment of underlying depression which can potentially improve depression symptoms, thereby surgical outcomes. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Orthopedics / 14.03.2017 Interview with: Justine M. Naylor, PhD Braeside Hospital, HammondCare, Australia South West Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Liverpool Hospital South West Sydney Local Health District, Liverpool 2170, NSW, Australia What is the background for this study? Response: Total knee arthroplasty (replacement) for end-stage arthritis is a very successful procedure for relieving the associated pain and functional impairments. Formalized rehabilitation following the surgery is also considered an essential adjunct to optimise recovery. World-wide, the volume of knee arthroplasty surgeries is increasing each year. In the US, for example, the prevalence of this surgery increased 11-fold from 1980 to 2010. The costs of the procedures (including the acute and rehabilitation costs) are also increasing. Because of these trends, there is concern for the future sustainability of these procedures. Research devoted to identifying the most cost-effective strategies in this field is required. Our group conducted a randomized trial comparing 10-days of inpatient rehabilitation to a simple, clinician-monitored home program in people who underwent total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis. Inpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation facility is commonly provided after knee arthroplasty in various countries including Australia, the US and Switzerland, and is comparatively expensive. In particular, it is a commonly available option for people with private healthcare insurance. Essentially, we wanted to compare 2 extremes – a resource-intensive program to one with far less resource requirements. Because patients who experience complications immediately after surgery may require inpatient rehabilitation to aid their recovery, we only included patients who did not experience a significant complication while in hospital, thus, were otherwise deemed able to be discharged directly home. (more…)
Author Interviews, Rheumatology, Surgical Research / 30.06.2014

Daniel L. Riddle, PT, Ph.D., F.A.P.T.A. Otto D. Payton Professor Assistant department chair Department of Physical Therapy Virginia Commonwealth Interview with: Daniel L. Riddle, PT, Ph.D., F.A.P.T.A. Otto D. Payton Professor Assistant department chair Department of Physical Therapy Virginia Commonwealth University MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Riddle: We used a classification system developed by researchers in Spain in the late 1990s and found that classifications of appropriate, inappropriate and inclusive ratings for persons undergoing knee replacement surgery were  44.0%, 21.7%, and 34.3%, respectively. We studied 175 persons who underwent unilateral total knee replacement in the Osteoarthritis Initiative study, an NIH and privately funded multi-year cohort study of persons with are at high risk for knee osteoarthritis. These findings need to be considered cautiously because the classification system was developed more than 15 years ago and was designed to place greatest priority on persons with end stage knee osteoarthritis and severe pain and functional loss. (more…)