Long Acting Local Anesthetic Reduced Need For Opioids After Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael A. Mont, MD Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Cleveland Clinic Cleveland, OH

Dr. Mont

Michael A. Mont, MD
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, OH 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major hurdle for both the patients and the orthopaedists. Many analgesic modalities are currently in use, and can be used alone or in combination in order to augment their effect. Addition of local anesthetic analgesia has been shown to improve pain control and reduce opioid consumption during postoperative period. However, the effects of this analgesia tend to dissipate with time, with the longest duration of action (bupivacaine) of approximately 12 hours. Therefore, long acting local anesthetic (liposomal bupivacaine) has been developed in order to expand the duration of effectiveness of pain relief for up to 96 hours. Many studies evaluated the effectiveness of this anesthetic and demonstrated contradictory results, however, they did not use the same methods and infiltration technique. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study at 16 hospitals using optimal infiltration techniques. Our study demonstrated significant improvement in pain, decreased opioid consumption, increased time to first opioid rescue, more opioid free patients in liposomal bupivacaine cohort. In addition, there were no unexpected safety concerns.

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Effect of SSRIs and Depression On Revisions After Hip or Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc.   Associate Professor of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine

Dr. Hilal Maradit Kremers

Hilal Maradit Kremers, M.D. M.Sc. 
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Depression and mood disorders are common comorbidities in patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty.  Based on previous research, there is evidence to suggest presence of depression in arthroplasty patients is associated with worse functional and clinical outcomes, such as complications, readmissions and mortality.  Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, it is important to identify strategies to effectively manage perioperative depression in an effort to improve arthroplasty outcomes.  One potential strategy is effective medical treatment of underlying depression which can potentially improve depression symptoms, thereby surgical outcomes.

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Home-Based Rehabilitation Found As Effective As Inpatient After Knee Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Justine M. Naylor, PhD
Braeside Hospital, HammondCare, Australia
South West Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Liverpool Hospital
South West Sydney Local Health District, Liverpool 2170, NSW, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Total knee arthroplasty (replacement) for end-stage arthritis is a very successful procedure for relieving the associated pain and functional impairments. Formalized rehabilitation following the surgery is also considered an essential adjunct to optimise recovery. World-wide, the volume of knee arthroplasty surgeries is increasing each year. In the US, for example, the prevalence of this surgery increased 11-fold from 1980 to 2010. The costs of the procedures (including the acute and rehabilitation costs) are also increasing. Because of these trends, there is concern for the future sustainability of these procedures. Research devoted to identifying the most cost-effective strategies in this field is required.

Our group conducted a randomized trial comparing 10-days of inpatient rehabilitation to a simple, clinician-monitored home program in people who underwent total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis. Inpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation facility is commonly provided after knee arthroplasty in various countries including Australia, the US and Switzerland, and is comparatively expensive. In particular, it is a commonly available option for people with private healthcare insurance. Essentially, we wanted to compare 2 extremes – a resource-intensive program to one with far less resource requirements. Because patients who experience complications immediately after surgery may require inpatient rehabilitation to aid their recovery, we only included patients who did not experience a significant complication while in hospital, thus, were otherwise deemed able to be discharged directly home.

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Many Knee Replacement Surgeries Classified As Inappropriate

Daniel L. Riddle, PT, Ph.D., F.A.P.T.A. Otto D. Payton Professor Assistant department chair Department of Physical Therapy Virginia Commonwealth UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Daniel L. Riddle, PT, Ph.D., F.A.P.T.A.
Otto D. Payton Professor
Assistant department chair
Department of Physical Therapy
Virginia Commonwealth University

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Riddle: We used a classification system developed by researchers in Spain in the late 1990s and found that classifications of appropriate, inappropriate and inclusive ratings for persons undergoing knee replacement surgery were  44.0%, 21.7%, and 34.3%, respectively. We studied 175 persons who underwent unilateral total knee replacement in the Osteoarthritis Initiative study, an NIH and privately funded multi-year cohort study of persons with are at high risk for knee osteoarthritis. These findings need to be considered cautiously because the classification system was developed more than 15 years ago and was designed to place greatest priority on persons with end stage knee osteoarthritis and severe pain and functional loss.

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