Eat Carbs in the Morning, Fat at Night?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
"Compare-the-Use-of-Carbohydrates-and-Lipids-in-Energy-Storage" by Zappys Technology Solutions is licensed under CC BY 2.0Kirsi-Marja Zitting, Ph.D.

Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders
Departments of Medicine and Neurology
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This study is a follow-up study to our previous study where we found that chronic insufficient sleep together with chronic jet lag is associated with adverse changes in metabolism, including increase in blood sugar levels (Buxton et al. Science Translational Medicine, 2012). The present study focuses on the influence of the time of day on metabolism, which has not been investigated in humans independent of the effects of sleep, physical activity and diet.

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Obese Women Remain at Risk For Heart Disease, Even When Metabolically Healthy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nathalie Eckel, MSc

German Diabetes Center
Düsseldorf, Germany 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

 Response: Obesity is associated with metabolic disorders such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia, and with a higher risk of cardiovacular disease compared to normal weight. However, there is also the phenomenon of the so-called “metabolically healthy obesity” and “metabolically unhealthy normal-weight”. So far it has been unclear how metabolic risk factors change over time in metabolically healthy people depending on body weight and what cardiovascular disease risk results from this.

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One Fatty Meal Results In Metabolic Disturbances

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Dr. Michael Roden Director, German Diabetes Center (DDZ) Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Chair/Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Director, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology University Hospital Düsseldorf Düsseldorf, Germany

Prof. Michael Roden

Prof. Dr. Michael Roden
Director, German Diabetes Center (DDZ)
Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research
at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Chair/Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Director, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology
University Hospital Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf, Germany

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continue to increase at an alarming rate. Their occurrence has been associated with intake of saturated fats, for example that of palm oil. This study aimed to shed light on how dietary fat initiates metabolic changes which lead to the aforementioned diseases. To this end we provided 14 young healthy volunteers an oral dose of palm oil or placebo randomly, in a crossover manner, with an 8-week washout period between each intervention.

One acute dose of palm oil leads to insulin resistance in the main insulin sensitive tissues of the body: the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In the liver, it also results in increased accumulation of triglycerides, increased production of glucose from lipid and amino acid precursors (rather than from glycogen), and increased energy metabolism, as denoted by increased hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Moreover, a similar experiment in mice revealed that one dose of palm oil differentially regulates genes and pathways which are known or suspected regulators of NAFLD, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells.

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Type of Sugar, Not Just Amount, Influences Metabolic Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Marta Alegret

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry
Pharmacology Section
School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences
University of Barcelona

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In humans, an excessive intake of sugars has been linked to the development of metabolic disturbances, and therefore to an increase in the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, increased consumption of simple sugars in liquid form, as beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, two questions remain unresolved: what is/are the underlying molecular mechanism(s) linking these metabolic alterations to cardiovascular diseases? Are the adverse cardiovascular and metabolic effects of sugar-sweetened beverages merely the consequence of the increase in caloric intake caused by their consumption?

To answer to these questions, we performed a study in female rats, which were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, without any supplementary sugar; a fructose-supplemented group, which received a supplement of 20% weight/volume fructose in drinking water; and a glucose-supplemented group, supplemented with 20% weight/volume glucose in drinking water.

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Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student Human Health and Nutritional Sciences University of Guelph Guelph, ONEric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student
Human Health and Nutritional Sciences
University of Guelph
Guelph, ON

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Many neurological diseases result in declines in mitochondrial content and function in the brain. Therefore, the purpose for this study was to determine if mitochondrial content could be enhanced in the brain through exercise, as previously demonstrated in skeletal muscle, and also to determine if similar exercise-signaling pathways are activated between the two tissues in the process.

This study found that despite reproducing similar findings in skeletal muscle, acute and chronic exercise did not activate traditional signaling mechanisms (AMPK, ERK1/2, CAMKII, P38) in either the cortex or striatum of the brain, nor did it result in sustained increases in mitochondrial respiration, DNA copy number, or protein content.

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It Really Is Harder For Some People to Lose Weight

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Martin Reinhardt, MD
Postdoctoral Fellow
PECRB, NIDDK, NIH
Phoenix, AZ 85016

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. ReinhardtIt can be very difficult for some people with obesity to lose weight despite great efforts. There is an immense deal of individual variability in weight loss success. Beyond differences in diet adherence, it is not clear what causes this variability in weight loss.

Through a study conducted at our facilities at the National Institutes of Health in Phoenix, Arizona, we have now shown that individual differences in biology – more precisely, differences in the amount of energy bodies use during fasting – make it difficult for certain obese people to lose weight.

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Sleep Loss Associated with Obesity and Diabetes

Prof. Dr. Bernd Schultes Endocrinology and Diabetes Internal Medicine eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center Brauerstrasse 97 9016 St. Gallen SchweizMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Dr. Bernd Schultes
Endocrinology and Diabetes Internal Medicine
eSwiss Medical & Surgical Center
Brauerstrasse 97
9016 St. Gallen Schweiz

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Professor Schultes: Sleep loss promotes the development of obesity and diabetes by metabolic and behavioral mechanism.

MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected?

Professor Schultes: The strength of the influence of sleep loss on metabolism is quite surprising and unexpected.

MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Professor Schultes: Sleep is important for metabolic health. Thus, clinicians should ask their patients about their sleep and patients should be aware that sleep is important for their health.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Professor Schultes: Interventional studies improving sleep are clearly needed to see in how much improved sleep can improve metabolic health, e.g. weight loss in obese, better glycemic control in diabetics.

Citation:

 The metabolic burden of sleep loss
Sebastian M Schmid MD,Manfred Hallschmid PhD,Prof Bernd Schultes MD
The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology – 25 March 2014
DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70012-9