Author Interviews, CDC, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Emory, JAMA, Occupational Health / 12.03.2021 Interview with: Jesse T. Jacob, MD School of Medicine Director, Antibiotic Stewardship Program Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia What is the background for this study? Response: Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was recognized in the United States in January 2020, the risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attributed to exposures in the health care workplace has been studied with conflicting results, and the role of job functions (such as nurse) or specific workplace activities, including care for individuals with known and unknown SARS-CoV-2 positivity, increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We assessed more than 24,000 healthcare providers between April and August 2020 across four large academic medical systems (Emory, Johns Hopkins, Rush University Medical Center, and University of Maryland) which collaborate in the CDC’s Prevention Epicenter Program and conduct innovative infection prevention research. Each site conducted voluntary COVID-19 antibody testing on its health care workers, as well as offered a questionnaire/survey on the employees’ occupational activities and possible exposures to individuals with COVID-19 infection both inside and outside the workplace. We also looked at three-digit residential zip-code prefixes to determine COVID-19 prevalence in communities.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Occupational Health, Sexual Health / 11.07.2018 Interview with: Leah Halper, PhD Associate Director Office of Student Life Center for the Study of Student Life Columbus, OH 43210 What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: We started to run these studies in 2014 given mutual research interests that we shared. We knew that there was much research on sexual harassment that focused on the victim, the victim’s experience and the reporting process for sexual harassment. This work is extremely valuable. We noticed, however, that there was less research on the perpetrator and if there were personality variables related to the likelihood of sexual harassment. In our studies, we demonstrate that a personality variable (Fear of Negative Evaluation, or anxiety that others will see one as incompetent) is related to sexual harassment among men in powerful positions. Our results held up after taking into account other personality variables, such as narcissism and self-esteem. Also, we found that men who felt insecure in their power (i.e., those that were anxious that others would see them as incompetent) were more likely to engage in both quid pro quo harassment – asking for sexual favors in return for something else – and gender harassment – creating a hostile environment for women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 17.01.2014 Interview with: Maike Neuhaus, MPsych Australian Postgraduate Award PhD Candidate Cancer Prevention Research Centre School of Population Health The University of Queensland Herston, QLD 4006 Australia What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Substantial epidemiological evidence shows that high volumes of sedentary behaviour – simply put  too much sitting- are linked to detrimental health outcomes such as overweight and obesity, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and all-cause mortality. Desk-based office workers typically spend around 75% of their work hours sitting at their desks or in meetings. Furthermore, they are unlikely to compensate for these high volumes of sitting time at work with less sedentary activities outside of work. Office workers are thus a high-risk group and an important target for intervention. The Stand Up UQ study examined best-practice approaches to reduce excessive sitting in office workers. Three separate groups of administrative office workers from The University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, participated in this study: One group received height-adjustable workstations only; another group received the same height-adjustable workstations plus additional individual (e.g. face-to-face coaching) and organisational strategies (e.g. management consultation, staff information session) to reduce workplace sitting; the third group served as control group and maintained their usual work-practice. Results showed that relative to the control group, the group receiving height-adjustable workstations and additional strategies had a three-fold greater reduction in sitting time than the group receiving height-adjustable workstations only. These findings have important practical and financial implications for workplaces targeting sitting time reductions. (more…)