Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 21.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Barbara Chaiyachati, MD PhD SafePlace: The Center for Child Protection and Health Division of General Pediatrics The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Children in foster care have high rates of medical problems including chronic diseases. There is less known about the differences in mortality for children in foster care. Looking at national data from 2003 to 2016, this study finds that children (ages 1 to 18) in foster care have higher mortality compared to children in the general population and that the difference in mortality has increased over time.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 09.11.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Panganiban, MD Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Director, Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Clinic Children's Hospital of Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obesity now affects 1 in 5 children and adolescents in the United States with an estimated prevalence of 13.7 million. We know that this is not only an issue in the US but a worldwide epidemic. Lifestyle modification is the primary treatment of obesity, which can be successful but is limited. Off-label use of medications for weight loss in youth is increasing secondary to the limited availability of FDA approved medications for weight-loss.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Health Care Systems, Outcomes & Safety, University of Pennsylvania / 07.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeffrey H. Silber, MD, PhD Director, Center for Outcomes Research Nancy Abramson Wolfson Endowed Chair Health Services Research Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Professor of Pediatrics, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Professor of Health Care Management Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This was a year-long randomized trial that involved 63 internal medicine residency programs from around the US.  In 2015-2016, about half of the programs were randomized to follow the existing rules about resident duty hours that included restrictions on the lengths of shifts and the rest time required between shifts (the standard arm of the trial) and the other half of the programs didn’t have those shift length or rest period rules (the flexible arm of the trial).  We measured what happened to the patients cared for in those programs (the safety study), and other studies examined how much sleep the residents received, and how alert they were at the end of shifts (the sleep study), and previously we published on the educational outcomes of the interns. To measure the impact on patient outcomes when allowing program directors the ability to use a flexible shift length for their interns, we compared patient outcomes after the flexible regimen went into place to outcomes the year before in the same program. We did the same comparison for the standard arm. Then we compared the difference between these comparisons. Comparing before and after the implementation of the trial within the same program allowed us to be more confident that a particularly strong or weak program, or a program with especially sick or healthy patients, would not throw off the results of the study. The trial was designed to determine, with 95% confidence, if the flexible arm did not do more than 1% worse than the standard arm. If this were true for the flexible arm, we could say the flexible regimen was “non-inferior” to the standard regimen. (more…)