Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, NIH / 08.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50622" align="alignleft" width="126"]Co-First author: Jamie J. Lo, MPH PhD student, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health National University of Singapore, Singapore Jamie Lo[/caption] Co-First author: Jamie J. Lo, MPH PhD student, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health National University of Singapore, Singapore [caption id="attachment_50623" align="alignleft" width="100"]Co-First author & Co-Senior author: Yong-Moon (“Mark”) Park, MD, PhD Dr. Park[/caption] Co-First author & Co-Senior author: Yong-Moon (“Mark”) Park, MD, PhD Postdoctoral fellow, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health [caption id="attachment_50624" align="alignleft" width="100"]Co-First author & Co-Senior author: Yong-Moon (“Mark”) Park, MD, PhD Dr. Sandler[/caption] Senior author: Dale P. Sandler, PhD Chief, Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We were interested, generally, in the association between meat consumption and breast cancer risk. Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption and risk of breast cancer are still inconsistent, although red meat has been identified as a probable carcinogen. In addition, there is not much evidence on the association between poultry consumption and breast cancer risk. We studied around 42,000 women ages 35-74 from across the US who are enrolled in the Sister Study cohort. Women provided self-reported information on meat consumption at baseline and were followed for 7.6 years on average.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease, Red Meat / 22.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48738" align="alignleft" width="158"]Marta Guasch-Ferre, PhD Research Scientist, Dept of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health Instructor of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, 02115 Dr. Guasch-Ferré[/caption] Marta Guasch-Ferre, PhD Research Scientist, Dept of Nutrition Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health Instructor of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicin Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, 02115   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Previous findings from randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of red meat on cardiovascular disease risk factors have been inconsistent. But our new study, which makes specific comparisons between diets high in red meat versus diets high in other types of foods, shows that substituting red meat with high-quality protein sources lead to more favorable changes in cardiovascular risk factors. That is, to properly understand the health effects of red meat, it’s important to pay attention to the comparison diet. People do not simply eat more or less meat – it will almost always be in substitution with other foods. 
Author Interviews, Lifestyle & Health, Red Meat / 16.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48626" align="alignleft" width="145"]Heli Virtanen, PhD StudentUniversity of Eastern Finland Heli Virtanen[/caption] Heli Virtanen, PhD Student University of Eastern Finland  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Optimal amount of protein in diet for supporting longevity is unclear. In addition, there have been indications that different protein sources have differential associations with mortality risk.  Thus, we investigated the associations of proteins and protein sources with mortality risk in the Finnish men of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Nutrition, Red Meat / 04.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48370" align="alignleft" width="168"]Saeed Mastour Alshahrani, MPH, PhDSchool of Public Health, Loma Linda University, California, USACollege of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid UniversityAbha, Saudi Arabia Dr. Mastour Alshahrani[/caption] Saeed Mastour Alshahrani, MPH, PhD School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, California, USA College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University Abha, Saudi Arabia  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: -The consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with risks of importance to public health including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several studies have found that red and processed meat intake was associated with an increased risk of mortality. However, levels of meat intake in those studies were relatively high. It remains of interest whether even relatively low intake levels of red and processed meat might be associated with greater mortality, compared to zero intake. 
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, Red Meat / 05.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: "bacon&eggs" by ilaria is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Maryam Farvid, Ph.D., Research Scientist   Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Prior prospective studies on red and processed meat consumption with risk of breast cancer have produced inconsistent results. Current meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies shows that women who eat a high amount of processed meat each day may have a higher risk of breast cancer than those who don't eat or have a low intake in their diet. 
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Nutrition, Red Meat / 11.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_31174" align="alignleft" width="139"]Wayne W. Campbell PhD Center on Aging and the Life Course Purdue University Dr. Wayne Campbell[/caption] Wayne W. Campbell PhD Center on Aging and the Life Course Purdue University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Organizations that promote healthy eating often recommend consuming no more than 3.5-4.5 2-3 ounce servings of red meat per week. This recommendation is mainly based on data from epidemiological studies that observe a cohort of peoples’ eating habits over time and relate those habits to whether or not they experience a cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, or cardiovascular-related death. These studies show associations between dietary choices and health but are unable to determine if a dietary choice is actually causing the disease. Randomized controlled clinical trials are able to determine causality by isolating one dietary variable to see the effects of that variable on certain health risk factors. Therefore, our lab compiled data from randomized controlled trials assessing the consumption of ≤ vs >3.5 servings of total red meat per week on blood lipids and lipoproteins and blood pressures, since these are common measures taken by clinicians to determine the risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, PNAS, UCSD / 31.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Annie Samraj and  Ajit Varki MDDr. Annie Samraj MD Postdoc Fellow Varki Lab and Ajit VAjit Varki MD Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Cellular & Molecular Medicine Co-Director, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny (CARTA) Co-Director, Glycobiology Research and Training Center (GRTC)  University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0687.arki MD Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Cellular & Molecular Medicine , Co-Director, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, Co-Director, Glycobiology Research and Training Center University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Varki: For the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that people who consume red meat (beef, pork, lamb) are at a higher risk for certain kinds of cancers. Although red meat is a high quality source of protein, iron and vitamins, too much consumption may be harmful to humans. While there are other hypotheses under consideration, we focused on a non-human sugar molecule called Neu5Gc in red meat that could explain the link to cancer risk. We extensively studied various foods and concluded that red meat (particularly beef) is rich in Neu5Gc. In contrast poultry, fish steaks and hen eggs have little or no Neu5Gc. From previous studies, we knew that animal-derived Neu5Gc could be incorporated into human tissues. In this study, we hypothesized that eating red meat could lead to inflammation if the body’s immune system targets the foreign Neu5Gc. Chronic inflammation is also known to instigate or promote tumor progression. To test this hypothesis, we used mice engineered to be similar to humans in that they lacked Neu5Gc, and also produced antibodies against it. When these mice were fed Neu5Gc, they developed systemic inflammation. Tumor formation increased fivefold and Neu5Gc accumulated in the tumors, proving the hypothesis. None of the various control groups of mice showed this effect.
Author Interviews, Karolinski Institute, Red Meat / 18.07.2014

Andrea Bellavia From the Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology and the Unit of Biostatistics Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrea Bellavia From the Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology and the Unit of Biostatistics Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bellavia: By evaluating together the consumption of processed and fresh red meat, we observed that processed red meat consumption was associated with shorter life, implying a potential negative effect on health. On the other hand, consumption of only fresh red meat was not associated with either shorter or longer survival. Therefore, the main finding of this work is that the negative effects of red meat consumption might only be due to meat processing, which counteract the positive effects of the beneficial nutrients of meat.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Red Meat / 17.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr inz. Joanna Kaluza Department of Human Nutrition Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW Warsaw POLAND Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The most important finding of my study is the fact that processed red meat consumption, but not unprocessed red meat, increases a risk of Heart Failure incidence and Heart Failure mortality.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Breast Cancer, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Nutrition / 11.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Maryam Farvid MSc, Ph.D. Takemi fellow, and Associate ArofessorMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Maryam Farvid MSc, Ph.D. Takemi fellow, and Associate Arofessor Senior author: Prof Walter Willett Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Farvid: Compared to women who had one serving per week red meat, those who consumed 1.5 serving per day red meat had a 22 percent higher risk of breast cancer. Red meat intake is associated with breast cancer risk in a dose-response manner. Each additional serving/day increase in total red meat was associated with a 13% increase in risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, each additional serving/day of poultry was associated with a 25% lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Substituting one serving/day of legumes for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer, substituting one serving/day of poultry for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 17% lower risk of breast cancer overall, and substituting one serving/day of combined legumes, nuts, poultry, and fish for one serving/day of red meat was associated with a 14% lower risk of breast cancer.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Nutrition, Red Meat / 28.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com: An Pan, PhD

Research Associate, Dept Nutrition 655 Huntington Avenue Building 2, Room 351 Boston, Massachusetts 02115

Changes in Red Meat Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Three Cohorts of US Men and Women MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: -- Compared with people who did not change their intake of red meat, those who increased it by as little as half a serving a day (about 1.5 ounces) over a four-year period had a 48% increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the subsequent 4 years. -- People who decreased their intake by half a serving a day over four years did not have an acute reduced risk in the next four years compared to people who did not change their intake, but had a reduced risk of developing the disease by 14% in the entire follow-up period, suggesting a prolonged effect. -- The findings included both processed meat such as lunch meat and hot dogs and unprocessed meats such as hamburger, steak and pork. And the association was generally stronger for processed red meat compared to unprocessed red meat. -- Adjusting for weight modestly reduced the association between red meat consumption and diabetes suggesting that weight gain played a role in the development of the disease.