Women Who Don’t Get HPV Vaccine May Also Not Get PAP Tests

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ann Goding Sauer
Epidemiologist, American Cancer Society, Inc.
Atlanta, GA 30303

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Response: Among US women, a positive association between Pap test uptake and HPV vaccination has been shown, though potential variation of the association by race/ethnicity had not been explored previously. The prevalence of some HPV types varies across different racial/ethnic groups so it is important to explore the association between Pap test uptake and HPV vaccination in detail.

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings?

Response: Pap test uptake was significantly lower among those who had not initiated HPV vaccination (81.0%) compared to women who had initiated vaccination (90.5%) (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90–0.96). This result was seen across most of the sociodemographic factors examined, though not statistically significant for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, those with lower levels of education, or those with higher levels of income.

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Preoperative Pulmonary Function Testing Decreased After ACP Guidelines

Louise Sun, MD SM FRCPC Assistant Professor Department of Anesthesiology, University of Ottawa Staff | Division of Cardiac Anesthesiology University of Ottawa Heart InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Louise Sun, MD SM FRCPC
Assistant Professor Department of Anesthesiology,
University of Ottawa Staff | Division of Cardiac Anesthesiology
University of Ottawa Heart Institute

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Sun: Preoperative testing provides important information for perioperative
planning and decision-making. However, given the rapid increase in health
care costs, there has been growing emphasis on the more rational use of
resources and thus the need to better understand the utilization patterns
of specific tests. Preoperative pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are
important in helping perioperative physicians identify patients at risk
for postoperative pulmonary complications, but few appropriate use
guidelines exist for this test. We conducted a population-based study
using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada to describe
temporal trends in preoperative pulmonary function tests
and assess whether the recent 2006 American College of Physicians (ACP) guidelines on risk assessment and prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications for non-cardiothoracic surgery influenced these trends.

We examined 511,625 individuals undergoing non-cardiothoracic surgery, amongst whom
3.6% underwent preoperative pulmonary function tests while 3.3% had non-operative PFTs.

Preoperative pulmonary function tests rates decreased over the study period and following the 2006 ACP guidelines while non-operative rates remained stable. By 2013,
preoperative pulmonary function tests were performed in fewer than 8% of Ontario patients with risk factors for pulmonary complications, while preoperative testing
rates among individuals without known respiratory disease had approached
rates seen in the non-operative setting. The decreasing preoperative pulmonary function tests rates contrast starkly against concurrent increases in rates of other
perioperative interventions such as preoperative anesthesia consultations
and stress testing.

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HCV Viral Load Testing Not Useful As Measure of New Hepatitis C Drug Effectiveness

Shyamasundaran Kottilil MBBS, PhD University of MarylandMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Shyamasundaran Kottilil MBBS, PhD
Division of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Human Virology
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Laboratory of Immunoregulation
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Kottilil: During treatment with interferon-based therapies, hepatitis C viral load levels were clinically useful as on-therapy markers of treatment outcome. However, the standard-of-care for HCV treatment has recently evolved from interferon-based regimens to short-duration, all-oral, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies. Therefore, it is important that we re-evaluate the utility of HCV viral loads during DAA regimens in guiding clinical decision-making.

We found that Hepatitis C viral loads on treatment and at end of treatment were not predictive of treatment success versus relapse with DAA therapy. Contrary to our experience with interferon-containing regimens, low levels of quantifiable HCV RNA at end of treatment did not preclude treatment success.

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