Left: Mario Gaudino, MD PhD; Right: Antonino Di Franco, MD

Coronary Artery Disease: Women Have Worse Outcomes Following Both Medical and Invasive Treatments

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Left: Mario Gaudino, MD PhD; Right: Antonino Di Franco, MD

Left: Mario Gaudino, MD PhD; Right: Antonino Di Franco, MD

Mario F.L. Gaudino, M.D. PhD
Attending Cardiac SurgeonDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Antonino Di Franco, MD
Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Weill Cornell Medicine

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What is the aim of this review? 

Response: Biological and socio-cultural differences between men and women are complex and likely account for most of the variations in the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD) between the two sexes. Despite the growing recognition of sex-specific determinants of outcomes, representation of women in clinical studies remains low, and sex-specific management strategies are generally not provided in guidelines.

We summarized the current evidence on sex-related differences in patients with CAD, focusing on the differential outcomes following medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary artery bypass surgery.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: Women have worse outcomes following both medical and invasive treatments of CAD.

It is worrisome that the majority of current evidence is derived from male study participants.

In addition, the lack of sex-specific data reporting contributes to knowledge gaps in sex-related differences.

Addressing sex-related disparities in treatment and access to care is an important target for reducing the global burden of CAD.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: It is crucial to secure appropriate representation of both sexes in clinical trials and studies. Reduction of disparities in clinical outcomes requires sex-specific strategies to tackle inequities in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CAD in women.

Investigators should focus on the dissemination and implementation of new knowledge to make sustainable changes to clinical practice.

We have no conflicts of interest to disclose. 


Gaudino M, Di Franco A, Cao D, et al. Sex-Related Outcomes of Medical, Percutaneous, and Surgical Interventions for Coronary Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Apr, 79 (14) 1407–1425.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.07.066


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Last Updated on April 6, 2022 by Marie Benz MD FAAD