Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer / 06.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jorge Moscat, PhD Maria T. Diaz-Meco, PhD Jorge Moscat Maria T. Diaz-Meco, Principal Investigators Moscat & Diaz-Meco Laboratories Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Weill Cornell Medicine New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the two different histological premalignant states? Response: Although much effort is devoted to understanding the biology and pathology of established malignant tumors and the formation of metastasis in order to identify new and more efficacious treatment approaches, much less is understood of how tumors initiate from normal cells. This is extremely important because treating incipient benign neoplasia should be easier and less toxic than treated already aggressive and disseminated cancer cells. In the case of colorectal cancer (CRC), routinary colonoscopies might identify still benign lesions that can be either “serrated” or “conventional” but that all present with reduced levels of two proteins called the aPKCs. As the tumor evolves, if the aPKCs are not upregulated, then the cancer becomes very aggressive and with very limited therapeutic options. Our work identifies precisely the initial mechanisms that determine if a benign adenoma would progress towards an aggressive phenotype. A full comprehension of these initial steps will lead to effective preventive therapies to stop cancer before it starts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Melanoma, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 24.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH Vice-Chair for Diversity and Inclusion Department of Dermatology Dermatologist Center for Diverse Skin Complexions Weill Cornell Medicine – NY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main types of skin cancer?  Is the incidence changing? Response: The 3 main types of skin cancer are melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States1 and 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. (2) The overall incidence has changed as follows:Melanoma: Rates doubled over past 30 years from 1982 to 2011.3 It differs by age group. o Adolescents and adults age 30 and younger: incidence rate is declining o Older age groups (e.g. 80 and older): incidence rate is increasing • Squamous Cell Cancer: o Incidence increased 263% between 1976-1984 and 2000-20104 • Basal Cell Cancer: o Incidence increased 145% between 1976-1984 and 2000-20104 (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews / 02.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Li Gan PhD Burton P. and Judith B. Resnick Distinguished Professor in Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medical College Shiaoching Gong PhD Helen and Robert Appel Alzheimer’s Disease Institute Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the process of making these neurons? Response: Primary tauopathies are a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of 3R or 4R tau protein in neurons and/or glial cells, where 4R tauopathies are more common primary tauopathies. The exact pathological mechanisms remain elusive. There are currently no therapies available that can halt or reverse the spread of tau aggregates since the drug effects found in animal models are not always reproduced in human clinical trials. The development of tau therapies from human cells have become urgently needed. Induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a unique model to better understand pathological mechanisms underlying human diseases and to develop human cell-based therapy. However, a major challenge to study 4R tauopathy is iPSC-derived neurons express very low levels of 4R Tau isoforms making it difficult to study 4R tauopathy and the mutations located in 4R Tau. To address this need, we designed and engineered a robust human iPSC 4R tauopathy model using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We first introduced specific mutations at the intron-exon 10 junctions and silent mutations within exon 10 to promote exon 10 inclusion, leading the increase of 4R isoforms expression in iPSC-derived neurons. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) mutation, P301S located in exon 10 is highly aggregation prone. To generate this human disease 4R tauopathy model, we then introduced this mutation to 4R iPSC to make it a 4RP301S iPSC line. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Electronic Records, Health Care Systems, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 07.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dhruv Khullar, M.D., M.P.P. Director of Policy Dissemination Physicians Foundation Center for Physician Practice and Leadership Assistant Professor of Health Policy and Economics Weill Cornell Medicine, NYC   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: From prior research, we know that there are racial/ethnic differences in the acute impact of COVID-19, including higher rates of hospitalization and death among Black and Hispanic individuals compared to white individuals. Less is known about whether there are differences in the rates or types of long COVID by race and ethnicity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Surgical Research / 03.03.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mario FL Gaudino, MD, PhD, MSCE, FEBCTS, FACC, FAHA Stephen and Suzanne Weiss Professor in Cardiothoracic Surgery (II) Assistant Dean for Clinical Trials Professor of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Services Research at Weill Cornell Graduate School Director of the Joint Clinical Trials Office (JCTO) Director of Translational and Clinical Research, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Chair Coronary Artery Task Force, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Weill Cornell Medicine | NewYork – Presbyterian Hospital Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is well-documented that women undergoing CABG have higher mortality and morbidity when compared with men. They are referred to surgery later than men, with more cardiovascular risk factors than men, and present more frequently with heart failure or in non-elective settings. However, overall CABG outcomes have improved over time, and so we sought to evaluate national trends in outcomes specifically in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Fertility, Nature / 14.02.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Melanie Balbach PhD Postdoctoral Associate in Pharmacology Weill Cornell Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: For men, the only two options for birth control currently available are condoms and vasectomy. Additional contraceptive methods are required to more equally distribute the burden of contraception between men and women. We aim to develop an on-demand contraceptive pill for men where sperm motility and thereby fertility is only blocked for multiple hours. The idea is that men take our contraceptive shortly before intercourse and regain fertility about 24 hours later. (more…)
Author Interviews / 04.05.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Louis Aronne, MD Co-Founder and Chief Medical Advisor at Intellihealth The Sanford I. Weill Professor of Metabolic Research Weill Cornell Medicine Medical Director of the Comprehensive Weight Control Center MedicalResearch.com:  What is the mission of Intellihealth Response: The mission of Intellihealth is transforming healthcare to help millions of people live healthier, happier lives through the medical treatment of obesity. Almost half of the US population has obesity but less than 2% are able to get treatment. The lack of available treatment and the stigmatized perception of obesity is what we aim to eliminate. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, JACC, Surgical Research / 06.04.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mario F.L. Gaudino, M.D. PhD Attending Cardiac SurgeonDepartment of Cardiothoracic Surgery Antonino Di Franco, MD Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery Weill Cornell Medicine   MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What is the aim of this review?  Response: Biological and socio-cultural differences between men and women are complex and likely account for most of the variations in the epidemiology and treatment outcomes of coronary artery disease (CAD) between the two sexes. Despite the growing recognition of sex-specific determinants of outcomes, representation of women in clinical studies remains low, and sex-specific management strategies are generally not provided in guidelines. We summarized the current evidence on sex-related differences in patients with CAD, focusing on the differential outcomes following medical therapy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and coronary artery bypass surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Surgical Research / 14.07.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mario Fl Gaudino MD Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Weill Cornell Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The radial artery is currently used in less than 10% of CABG procedures in the US.  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: The JAMA paper provides convincing evidence that the use of the radial artery rather than the saphenous vein to complement the internal thoracic artery for CABG is associated with improved long-term outcomes.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research / 20.12.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer L Marti MD FACS Assistant Professor of Surgery, Breast & Endocrine Surgery Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY Luc GT Morris MD, Co-senior author Head & Neck Surgery MSKCC, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased dramatically over the past 3 decades. There is controversy whether this increased incidence is due to increased detection of an existing reservoir of disease, versus a true increase in the occurrence of the disease, due to an environmental carcinogen or other factors (eg obesity). (more…)
Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Mental Health Research / 18.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katharine Phillips, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry DeWitt Wallace Senior Scholar Residency Research Director Department of Psychiatry Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University Attending Psychiatrist, New York-Presbyterian Hospital Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior Alpert Medical School of Brown University Weill Cornell Psychiatry Specialty Center Weill Cornell Medicine I NewYork-Presbyterian MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
  • Electronic prescribing of medication by clinicians is widespread; it is required in many institutions and in some states. Electronic prescribing systems commonly use computerized decision support algorithms that give prescribers automated warnings or alerts at the time of prescribing if the system identifies a potential prescribing error.
  • Some prior studies suggest that electronic prescribing warnings/alerts may reduce prescribing errors and thus can be clinically useful. However, other prior studies caution that these alerts may have substantial limitations.
  • Despite the importance of this topic, relatively few studies have examined the accuracy of automated prescribing warnings in electronic prescribing systems; to our knowledge, no prior study has focused primarily on prescribing of medications for psychiatric conditions.
  • This report presents results from a survey of members of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology (ASCP), a specialty society that advances the science and practice of clinical psychopharmacology, regarding automated warnings generated by electronic prescribing systems.
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