Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Heart Disease, Nature / 14.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ben Omega Petrazzini, B.Sc. Associate Bioinformatician Ron Do Laboratory Ron Do, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences Director, Center for Genomic Data Analytics Associate Director in Academic Affairs, The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine Charles Bronfman Professor in Personalized Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Rare coding variants directly affect protein function and can inform the role of a gene in disease. Discovery of rare coding variant associations for coronary artery disease (CAD) to date have only had limited success. Genetic studies typically use standard phenotyping approaches to classify cases versus controls for CAD. However, this phenotyping approach doesn’t capture disease progression or severity in individuals. We recently introduced an in-silico score for CAD (ISCAD) that tracks CAD progression, severity, underdiagnosis and mortality (Forrest et al. The Lancet, 2023, PMID 36563696). ISCAD was built using a machine learning model trained on clinical data from electronic health records (EHR). Importantly, ISCAD is a quantitative score that measures CAD on a spectrum. The quantitative nature of the score provides an opportunity to discover additional rare coding variant associations that may not have been detected with the standard case-control phenotyping approach. Here in this study, we performed a large-scale rare variant association study in the exome sequences of 604,915 individuals for ISCAD, a machine learning-based score for CAD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease, NEJM / 13.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Giovanni Landoni, MD Associate Professor Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele Milan, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects approximately 10-15% of hospitalized patients, and up to 50% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In cardiac surgery one patient out of three will face AKI during the postoperative period, and this will lead to higher morbidity and mortality. AKI is associated with an elevated risk of chronic kidney disease, as well as, in the most severe cases, with the use of renal replacement therapy, which may double hospitalization costs, reduce quality of life, and increase long-term mortality. So far, no preventive measure with level I of evidence did exist for AKI. The PROTECTION trial is a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, conducted at 22 centers in 3 different countries. We recruited 3,511 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to receive an intravenous infusion of amino acids (AA) (Isopuramin 10%, Baxter), at 2g/kg/day up to a maximum 100g/day, or an equivalent dose of placebo (Ringer’s solution), for a maximum of 72 hours. The primary outcome was the incidence of any stage of AKI, according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 creatinine criteria. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Salt-Sodium / 12.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katrina Abuabara, MD, MA, MSCE Associate Professor of Dermatology, UCSF Associate Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology UC Berkeley School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Eczema (also known as atopic dermatitis) has become increasingly common over recent decades, especially in industrialized countries, suggesting that environmental or lifestyle factors like diet could impact rates of disease. It is well established that sodium, consumed primarily in the form of salt, increases the risk of hypertension and heart disease through pro-inflammatory mechanisms. The role of sodium on other chronic inflammatory conditions like eczema has been less well-studied. (more…)
Nursing / 05.06.2024

Nursing is a demanding yet incredibly rewarding profession that requires a unique blend of skills and qualities. Successful nurses must possess more than just medical knowledge; they must embody characteristics that enable them to provide exceptional care, navigate complex situations, and foster strong relationships with patients and colleagues. Understanding these essential qualities can help aspiring nurses and those currently in the field strive for excellence. This article will explore the key attributes that define a successful nurse, highlighting the traits that contribute to their ability to deliver high-quality healthcare and compassionate support.

1.    Strong Communication Skills

Effective communication is a crucial quality for a successful nurse. Nurses must be able to convey information clearly and accurately to patients, families, and other healthcare professionals. This involves both verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as the ability to adapt messages for different audiences. Clear communication is essential for ensuring that patients understand their diagnoses, treatment plans, and medication instructions. Miscommunication can lead to confusion, non-compliance, and even medical errors, so it is vital for nurses to articulate information in a way that is easy to comprehend. This might include using layman’s terms, providing written instructions, or demonstrating procedures. In addition to patient communication, nurses must collaborate effectively with other healthcare team members. This requires active listening, assertiveness, and the ability to provide and receive constructive feedback. Strong communication skills also involve being able to navigate difficult conversations, such as discussing prognosis or delivering bad news, with sensitivity and professionalism. For nurses looking to enhance their communication skills, pursuing advanced education can be beneficial. An online MSN nursing degree, for example, can provide specialized training in communication strategies and leadership, further preparing nurses for the complexities of the healthcare environment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, Immunotherapy / 04.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven H. Itzkowitz, MD, FACP, FACG, AGAF Professor of Medicine and Oncological Sciences Director of the GI Fellowship Program Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study looked at patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who had a history of cancer in the past 5 years and asked whether the medications they received for their IBD might have affected their rates of getting future cancer (new or recurrent cancers). Because many of the medicines that are used to treat IBD can affect the immune system in various ways, there has been concern that the medicines might predispose to subsequent cancers. We found that patients who received immunosuppressive medications had a numerically increased risk of subsequent cancer, this was not statistically higher than those who had not been exposed to these medications. While previous studies have looked at this question retrospectively, this is the first report that analyzed this issue prospectively using individuals from the United States.  Moreover, this study represents a multi-institutional collaboration among gastroenterologists at most of the major NYC healthcare systems. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, CMAJ / 03.06.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rahel Zewude, MD FRCPC Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, PGY-5 University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the syndrome of Auto-brewery syndrome? Response: Auto-brewery syndrome refers to a syndrome where the gut ferments alcohol from carbohydrates leading to high blood alcohol levels and intoxication without any consumption of alcoholic drinks. (more…)
Author Interviews / 29.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Larry Kosinski, MD Gastroenterologist and SonarMD Founder & Board Member MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly explain what is meant by the IBD group of diseases? Response:  Affecting up to 70 million Americans, the U.S. spends $136 billion each year on digestive health as these conditions are complex to predict, treat and manage. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) includes people specifically diagnosed with either ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, and these conditions require close monitoring to reduce the risk for complications that lead to lengthy hospital stays and significant medical spend. In addition to providing a holistic health program, the SonarMD digital platform risk stratifies patients and performs continuous symptom checks to identify deteriorating symptoms sooner and communicate changes to physicians, meaning that care teams can intervene faster to keep patients healthier and lower the overall cost of care. The two large, longitudinal studies that we presented at Digestive Disease Week 2024 evaluated several major drivers of medical costs in people living with IBD and enrolled in the SonarMD end-to-end, digital care coordination program to determine if SonarMD’s program reduced healthcare utilization and concurrently produced better health outcomes. To assess this, we looked at Emergency Department visits and In-patient Admissions compared to risk-matched control groups. (more…)
Exercise - Fitness / 29.05.2024

cycling-biking-health-benefits Remember those hot summer days when all we wanted was to come home from school and ride a bike around the neighborhood? Is this a familiar scenario for you? If yes, you've come to the right (digital) place because we discuss the benefits of cycling for all generations.

Why Pedaling?

You know how they say, once you learn to ride a bike, you never forget it. If you have a two-wheeler abandoned in some corner of your storage or basement, it's time to consider taking it for a ride. Here's why
  • Cycling is a low-impact aerobic activity
  • Riding a bike activates almost all muscles
  • Pedaling improves your concentration, coordination, stamina, and strength
  • Regular bike rides help you lose weight
  • Rides are as intense as you want them to be
  • It is a cost-effective, eco-friendly transportation option
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Education, Nursing / 29.05.2024

A nursing career is one that can be both rewarding and challenging. It’s a profession that demands compassion, resilience, and a commitment to lifelong learning. According to Indeed, in the US, the typical hourly wage for a Registered Nurse stands at $43.91. Working in such a noble field is an amazing opportunity. However, before embarking on this career, it’s essential to step back and ask yourself some important questions. This will help you determine if nursing is the right path for you. Here are a few questions to consider before choosing a career in nursing.

#1 Am I Passionate about Helping Others?

Ask Yourself Before Choosing a Career in NursingAccording to the Daily Nurse, nursing is fundamentally about caring for others during their most vulnerable moments. It requires kindness and a genuine desire to make a positive impact on people’s lives. Besides, nurses, particularly those working with diverse populations, need to consistently practice empathy to enhance the quality of their care. Reflect on whether you have a passion for helping others and derive satisfaction from providing comfort and support to those in need. If the answer is yes, then nursing might be a perfect fit for you. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, OBGYNE / 29.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emmanuel Bujold, Reproduction Mother and Child Health Unit CHU De Québec-Université Laval Research Center Université Laval Québec, QC Canada     MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe what is meant by preeclampsia? Response: Preeclampsia is a complication of the second half of pregnancy, manifesting as high blood pressure and renal dysfunction. The only current treatment is to deliver the baby before it becomes complicated by damage to maternal organs or fetal distress. A few years ago, we demonstrated that aspirin started in the 1st trimester can prevent the majority of preeclampsias in pregnant women at risk. It has therefore become urgent to identify pregnant women at risk as early as the 1st trimester. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Health Care Systems / 25.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Srivastava Kodavatiganti, MBS Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prescription and illicit opioid misuse and overdoses have continued to escalate in the U.S. with annual overdoses exceeding 110,000[1]. There was a substantial rise from 2013 to 2022 in the number of opioid-related overdoses due to synthetic opioids [2]. Even nonfatal opioid-involved overdoses increased 4% quarterly between January 2018 and March 2022 as observed by encounters by emergency medical services [3]. Although the eastern U.S. has been particularly impacted by fatal overdoses, annual increases have increased as of last year in the western states including in Nevada (+27.9%), Washington (+36.9%), Oregon (+38.6%), and Alaska (+45.9%).  In contrast, other states have seen more modest changes (New Mexico = +1.3%) including decreases (South Dakota = -2.4%, Nebraska = -19.5%) [1]. These findings underscore the importance for understanding patterns in usage of prevention and treatment strategies. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist which can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose. This crucial lifesaving tool is administered as an injection or as a nasal spray. This study characterized the patterns of naloxone prescriptions in Medicaid patients from 2018 – 2021 and Medicare patients for 2019. State level differences were also quantified as the fold difference in prescribing between the highest and lowest states when correcting for the number of enrollees in each state. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections / 20.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cathryn Haigh, Ph.D. Chief Prion Cell Biology Unit Laboratory of Neurological Infections and Immunity National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Intramural Research, Rocky Mountain Laboratories National Institutes of Health Hamilton, MT 59840 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study,  ie what are prions/prion-related diseases?  Where are prions found? Response: Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals.  In humans these diseases often manifest as rapidly progressing dementias but are rarely caused by a known exposure to the infectious agents (prions).  More commonly they are sporadic (no known cause) or hereditary. One form of human disease is believed to have arisen from eating beef contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (as known as mad cow disease).  This has resulted in concerns that chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting deer, elk and moose, might also have the potential to cross the species barrier and cause disease in humans.  To date, transmissions of CWD prions to cynomolgus macaques have been negative, a good sign that crossing the species barrier would not be easy, but macaques are not human so we wanted to test whether CWD could infect human brain tissue. To do this we used a human cerebral organoid model (mini human brain tissues grown from skin cells in a laboratory) and directly exposed the organoids to prions from the brains of animals that had died of CWD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Gastrointestinal Disease, Health Care Systems / 20.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Targownik, MD Lead author and Clinician-Investigator Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto Departmental Division Director, Gastroenterology and Hepatology University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Was there a difference in the types of patients or need for surgery seen by the female/male physicians? Response: The background for this study is that there is an emerging body of literature that having a female physician leads to better patient outcomes in many health care settings, especially amongst patients undergoing surgery or being admitted to hospital.  However, this has not previously been evaluated in gastroenterology.  Female and male gastroenterologists may have different styles of practice on average, and this potentially could lead to differences in how patients engage with the health care system following an initial assessment. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Frailty, JAMA, Orthopedics / 16.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chintan V. Dave PharmD, PhD Assistant Professor of Pharmacy and Epidemiology Assistant Director Rutgers Center for Pharmacoepidemiology and Treatment Science Academic Director Rutgers Center for Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our study examined the association between initiation of an antihypertensive medication and its correlation with fracture risk among older nursing home veterans. (more…)
Diabetes, Genetic Research / 16.05.2024

How At-Home Genetic Testing Can Detect Your Diabetes Risk 

Disclaimer: This blog content is for informational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. In recent years, the popularity of at-home genetic testing has surged, offering individuals ease and convenience at their doorstep. These tests provide a glimpse into their genetic blueprint and the potential health risks they might face. The promise of insights into various genetic predispositions, including the risk for diseases like diabetes is one you can’t miss.  While these tests can provide valuable information about one's genetic susceptibility to diabetes, it is crucial to approach the results with caution. They are not a substitute for traditional methods of diabetes screening and risk assessment but can complement them by providing additional layers of insight. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research / 12.05.2024

 Brussels, 10 May 2024. Gum health may play a pivotal role in overall health and quality of being, and deserves to be better acknowledged and explored by the research community. That is why the EFP promotes Gum Health Day 2024 on 12 May, an outreach initiative celebrated in more than 30 countries around the world to raise awareness among the medical profession and the general public of the importance of periodontal health. Dr Mia Rakic, Gum Health Day 2024 co-ordinator and member of the executive committee of the EFP (European Federation of Periodontology, efp.org), explains why Gum Health Day 2024 focuses on Generation Z and why gum health is so relevant: (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, University of Pittsburgh / 09.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roderick J. O’Sullivan PhD Associate Professor Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology UPMC Hillman Cancer Center University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: For a few years, my group has had the good fortune of collaborating with Dr. Ivan Ahel. Ivan is a world leader in the field of ADP-ribosylation. His work has identified major gaps in our understanding of ADP-ribosylation. This includes his lab discovering that DNA bases can be ADP-ribosylated in bacteria and that a poorly characterized enzyme known as TARG1 could be involved in that process. In discussing this work with Ivan, we were confident that DNA ADP-ribosylation also exists in human cells and that showing this could be pretty important. The problem was that identifying a part of the genome where it might be present, so we could study it, was not so obvious and challenging. But we had a hunch that telomeres could be one part of the genome where it could happen!! Telomeres are really special structures located at the ends of each human chromosome. They demarcate the physical end of each chromosome and prevent chromosomes from becoming entangled – which if it happens, is catastrophic for cells. Our hunch was based on the evidence from other studies that telomeres are natural targets of PARP1, the enzyme that catalyzes most of the ADP-ribosylation in human cells. I then discussed this idea with Anne Wondisford, a medical scientist trainee in the lab, who liked the idea and designed a series of experiments to test it. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Stroke / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Anders Holt MD PhD Department of Cardiology Copenhagen University Hospital–Herlev and Gentofte Gentofte Hospitalsvej Hellerup, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of ADHD treatments were in the study? Response: An increasing number of adults are being diagnosed with ADHD and subsequently treated. Taking the drugs' effect on the sympathetic nervous system into account, it seems relevant to investigate whether treatment could be associated with an elevated long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. The drugs included in the study were methylphenidate, atomoxetine, lisdexamfetamine, dexamfetamine, and modafinil. Owing to the fact that atomoxetine is not a sympathomimetic amine as the others, separate supplementary analyses were carried out for this drug, yielding similar results. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Cannabis / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pamela Maher, PhD Research Professor Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory SALK Institute for Biologic Studies La Jolla California   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Several years ago, we tested several different cannabinoids for protection against the oxytosis/ferroptosis regulated cell death pathway and found CBN (cannabinol) to be one of the most effective. While THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidol) were also quite protective, we wanted to pursue non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Since we are interested in maintaining brain function in the context of aging and disease, we thought that a psychoactive compound could be problematic. In addition, there was already a lot of work on CBD, so we thought we could learn more and contribute more to the field by studying CBN. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Nutrition / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marta Guasch-Ferré, PhD Associate Professor and Deputy Head of Section, Section of Epidemiology University of Copenhagen Group Leader, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fats and contains compounds with antioxidant activity that may play a protective role for the brain. Olive oil as part of a Mediterranean diet appears to have a beneficial effect against cognitive decline. Higher olive oil intake was previously associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. But its association with dementia mortality was unknown. (more…)
Heart Disease, Infections, Technology / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah Dräger, MD Postdoc, BRCCH Researcher Internal Medicine and ID specialist Division of Internal Medicine University Hospital Basel, Switzerland Basel   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:In patients with severe infections and patients in the intensive care unit, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be used to optimize and personalize intravenous antibiotic treatment. In these patients, “conventional antibiotic dosing”, e.g. selection of the dose only considering the renal function and, if applicable, body weight, may lead to over- or underdosing due to an altered drug metabolism. This, in turn may be associated with worse clinical outcome or toxic side effects. TDM is used to monitor antibiotic blood plasma concentrations and provides guidance to the clinicians to adjust the antibiotic dosing according to the TDM results. But the collection of blood is an invasive, time- and resource-consuming sample collection technique and leads to discomfort to the patients. Additionally, turnaround time may be long (3h to 8h), and analyses may be offered only twice or three time a week. This may be too late to guide antibiotic dosing timely in patients with a very dynamic drug metabolism. Therefore, alternatives are required to overcome the limitations of current TDM. By using exhaled breath, we aim to develop an innovative therapeutic drug monitoring technique, which is non-invasive, easy to collect, not associated with discomfort to the patient, and which may allow to decrease the turnaround time, especially when combined with real-time analyses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gediminas "Gedi" Mainelis, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of particles, ie where do they come from? Response: This work is a continuation of my research on nanoparticles in consumer products. We have investigated and published on the release of particles from nano-enabled consumer products, such as cosmetic powders, various sprays and clothing. In this project, we were interested in potential resuspension of particles once nano-enabled consumer sprays are used. The particles are added into consumer products to provide them certain desired properties, like antimicrobial protection, odor reduction or protection against UV (sunscreen). Once the products are used, the particles are released and we could be exposed to them. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews / 02.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Li Gan PhD Burton P. and Judith B. Resnick Distinguished Professor in Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medical College Shiaoching Gong PhD Helen and Robert Appel Alzheimer’s Disease Institute Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the process of making these neurons? Response: Primary tauopathies are a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of 3R or 4R tau protein in neurons and/or glial cells, where 4R tauopathies are more common primary tauopathies. The exact pathological mechanisms remain elusive. There are currently no therapies available that can halt or reverse the spread of tau aggregates since the drug effects found in animal models are not always reproduced in human clinical trials. The development of tau therapies from human cells have become urgently needed. Induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a unique model to better understand pathological mechanisms underlying human diseases and to develop human cell-based therapy. However, a major challenge to study 4R tauopathy is iPSC-derived neurons express very low levels of 4R Tau isoforms making it difficult to study 4R tauopathy and the mutations located in 4R Tau. To address this need, we designed and engineered a robust human iPSC 4R tauopathy model using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We first introduced specific mutations at the intron-exon 10 junctions and silent mutations within exon 10 to promote exon 10 inclusion, leading the increase of 4R isoforms expression in iPSC-derived neurons. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) mutation, P301S located in exon 10 is highly aggregation prone. To generate this human disease 4R tauopathy model, we then introduced this mutation to 4R iPSC to make it a 4RP301S iPSC line. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems / 27.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gaurav Khanna Ph.D. Assistant Professor | School of Global Policy and Strategy University of California, San Diego www.econgaurav.com   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There is a shortage of doctors in certain parts of the US. For instance, although about 20% of the United States population live in rural areas, only 11% of physicians practice in these locations. The research shows that relaxed visa requirements enable more foreign-trained doctors to practice in remote and low-income areas, without reducing the employment of U.S.-trained doctors. One such program that facilitates keeping foreign-born physicians in the US is the Conrad 30 Program. Most participants in the Conrad 30 Waiver Program work in Health Professional Shortage Areas (or HPSAs), areas lacking an adequate number of primary care physicians, dentists, or mental health care providers. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, JAMA / 27.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shruti K. Gohil, MD Assistant Professor, Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Associate Medical Director, Epidemiology & Infection Prevention, Infectious Diseases UCI School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Antibiotic resistance, which occurs when germs like bacteria and fungi mutate to defeat the drugs designed to kill them, is a major public health threat.
  • Data show that 40-50% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia receive broad spectrum antibiotics when they do not need them.
  • Helping clinicians tailor antibiotic prescriptions to individual patients can improve patient outcomes by preserving healthy bacteria in the body and reducing the risk of future antibiotic resistance.
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Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Gender Differences, UCLA / 25.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yusuke Tsugawa, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine & Health Policy and Management, UCLA Director of Data Core, UCLA Department of Medicine Statistics Core Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90024   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior studies have found that female and male physicians practice medicine differently. For example, female physicians are, on average, more likely to abide by clinical guidelines and spend more time listening to patients. However, evidence was limited as to whether such differences have clinically meaningful impact on patients’ health outcomes, which was the aim of this study. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Technology, UCSD, Vaccine Studies / 25.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John W. AyersJohn W. Ayers, PhD MA Vice Chief of Innovation | Assoc. Professor
Div. Infectious Disease & Global Public Health University of California San Diego Since the World Health Organization declared an ‘infodemic’ of misinformation, there have been surprisingly few achievements to celebrate. X's Community Notes have emerged as an innovative strategy to address misinformation as reported in the latest issue of JAMA.
Before the inception of Community Notes, social media companies employed various tactics to tackle misinformation, including censoring, shadowbanning (muting a user or their content on a platform without informing them), and adding generic warning labels to problematic content. However, these efforts were typically undisclosed meaning their effectiveness could not be studied.

In late 2022, X introduced Community Notes. This novel approach empowers volunteer, independent, anonymous, and ideologically diverse contributors to identify posts containing misinformation and to rectify misinformation by appending informative "notes" to suspect posts. The process is controlled by the public, instead of decision-makers at the company. Most importantly the system is open-sourced so it can be studied by external scientists.

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Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Mental Health Research, NIH / 19.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Dekel PhD Principal Investigator Director of the Postpartum Traumatic Stress Disorders Research Program Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, 02114 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Maternal psychopathologies affect a significant number of American women and are the leading complications of childbirth and a significant contributor to maternal death. Maternal (physical) morbidity in the US remain the highest among all countries in the West, suggesting that some women will have a traumatic childbirth experience. The most common mental illness associated with trauma is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD stemming from childbirth is estimated to affect 6% of delivering women (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28443054/). In high-risk groups, for example women who have unscheduled Cesareans the rate is estimated at 20% or higher (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31041603/.). Although we screen for postpartum depression in hospitals in the USA there is no screening for what we define as childbirth-related PTSD (CB-PTSD). The overarching goal of the Dekel Lab is to develop novel and patient-friendly screening tools to identify women with this disorder. As importantly traumatic childbirth disproportionality affects Black and Latina women (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35598158/). (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism, Nature, Pediatrics / 11.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Andrey Vyshedskiy, PhD Founder and CEO of ImagiRation LLC Neuroscientist, Boston University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The common intuitive belief is that language comprehension development follows a linear trajectory: children acquire one grammatical rule at a time. Over 20 years ago, Dr. A. Vyshedskiy, predicted that instead of linear development, language should unfold in three steps corresponding to three language comprehension mechanisms of increasing complexity. The study of 31845 autistic individuals, published today in the journal npj Mental Health Research, validates this prediction. The implications of this discovery are reaching far and wide. The traditional definition of language is highly ambiguous. For some philosophers, “language” is equivalent to a “communication system.” Others argue that “language” must be defined more narrowly, in a way that is unique to humans. The results of the new study streamline terminology for describing different language comprehension mechanisms. The ensuing discussion of which language comprehension mechanisms are unique to humans and which are shared with other apes is expected to be most interesting. (more…)