Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Nutrition, Occupational Health, Sleep Disorders / 09.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zhilei Shan, MD, PhD Postdoctoral fellow on Nutritional Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Unhealthy sleep behaviors and sleep disturbances are associated with higher risk of multiple diseases and mortality. The current profiles of sleep habits and disturbances, particularly the differences between workdays and free days, are unknown in the contemporary US. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: In this nationally representative cross-sectional analysis with 9004 adults aged 20 years or older, differences in sleep patterns between workdays and free days were observed. The mean sleep duration was 7.59 hours on workdays and 8.24 hours on free days (difference, 0.65 hour). The mean sleep and wake times were at 11:02 PM and 6:41 AM, respectively, on workdays and 11:25 PM and 7:41 AM, respectively, on free days (differences, 0.23 hour for sleep time and 1.00 hour for wake time). With regard to sleep disturbances, 30.5% of adults experienced 1 hour or more of sleep debt,46.5% experienced 1 hour or more of social jet lag, 29.8% had trouble sleeping, and 27.2% experienced daytime sleepiness. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, PLoS, Social Issues / 04.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlota Batres, Ph.D.Assistant Professor, Department of PsychologyDirector, Preferences Lab PreferencesLab.comFranklin and Marshall College MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Makeup is commonly attributed with increasing attractiveness in female faces, but this effect has not been investigated in male faces. We therefore sought to examine whether the positive effect of makeup on attractiveness can be extended to male faces. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, PLoS, Rheumatology / 04.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Tim Vyse Professor of Molecular Medicine and Dr David Morris Non Clinical Lecturer in Molecular Genetics Guy’s Hospital, London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We observed a correlation between the genetic associations with severe COVID-19 and those with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Lupus), and aimed to discover which genetic loci were shared by these diseases and what biological processes were involved. This resulted in the discovery of several genetic loci, some of which had alleles that were risk for both diseases and some of which were risk for severe COVID-19 yet protective for SLE. The locus with most evidence of shared association (TYK2) is involved in interferon production, a process that is important in response to viral infection and known to be dysregulated in SLE patients.  Other shared associated loci contained genes also involved in the defense response and the immune system signaling. These results add to the growing evidence that there are alleles in the human genome that provide protection against viral infection yet are risk for autoimmune disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, STD / 04.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sean HughesSean M Hughes MA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Washington Seattle, WA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Young women are at elevated risk of getting sexually transmitted infections at the age when they typically start to have sexual intercourse. It’s not known whether this elevated risk is a consequence of behavioral factors (such as choices around use of barrier protection), physiological factors (such as a difference in the immune system) or a combination of both. In this study, we investigated a physiological factor: the immune system in the vagina. (more…)
Author Interviews, Circadian Rhythm, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 01.11.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeroen van der Velde, PhD Leiden University Medical Center Dept. Clinical Epidemiology, C7-102 Leiden, The Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We hypothesized that, in addition to the amount of physical activity, the pattern in which physical activity is accumulated over the day is relevant for metabolic health. Several studies previously showed beneficial effects of interrupting sedentary periods with short periods of activity (breaks in sedentary time) on glucose control. In addition, very recently it has been argued that the timing of physical activity during the day may be relevant for metabolic health. This was mainly shown in animal studies and intervention studies with supervised high intensity exercise training in men with impaired glucose control or type 2 diabetes. If timing of physical activity matters in a ‘free-living’ setting in the general population is largely unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate associations of timing of physical activity and breaks in sedentary time with liver fat content and insulin resistance in a middle-aged population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer, Genetic Research, Nature / 18.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Royce Zhou, MD/PhD Candidate Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background of this story is to see whether things outside of the cancer cell, such as the tumor microenvironment, can lead to epigenetic changes within the cancer cell. These changes are largely believed to be due to factors inside the cell, not outside. Super-enhancers are the top 1-2% of enhancers in the genome. They control cell identity genes and oncogenes in cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 18.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexandra J. White, PhD, MSPH Stadtman Investigator Epidemiology Branch National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Institutes of Health Research Triangle Park, NC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is the chemical primarily used in hair straighteners? Response: Hair products such as dye and chemical straighteners contain several different chemicals that may act as carcinogens or endocrine disruptors and thus may be important for cancer risk. Straighteners in particular have been found to include chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, cyclosiloxanes and metals and may release formaldehyde when heated. Previous research has suggested that hair dye and chemical straighteners are related to other hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast and ovarian cancer, but no previous study has considered how they are related to uterine cancer risk. (more…)
Addiction, Alcohol, Author Interviews, Cannabis, Education, JAMA, Pediatrics, Social Issues, UCLA / 06.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mitchell Wong, MD PhD Professor of Medicine Executive Vice Chair for Research Training Department of Medicine Executive Co-Director, Specialty Training and Advanced Research (STAR) Program Director, UCLA CTSI KL2 Program UCLA Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research Los Angeles, CA 90024 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is estimated that social factors like poverty, education, and housing have a large impact on health. Yet, there are few interventions that exist to directly address those issues.  Schools are a promising solution since society already invests heavily in education and schools are an everyday part of most children’s lives. (more…)
Author Interviews, Clots - Coagulation, Heart Disease, Karolinski Institute, Kidney Disease / 06.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Juan Jesus Carrero Pharm PhD Professor of Epidemiology Cardio-renal Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Concerns on the possibility of (direct oral anticoagulants)  DOAC-related nephropathy may limit its use. In this cohort study of non-valvular AF patients from routine clinical practice, initiation of DOAC vs (vitamin K antagonists) VKA was associated with more favorable kidney outcomes, i.e., a lower risk of the composite of kidney failure and sustained 30% eGFR decline, as well as a lower risk of AKI occurrence. In agreement with trial evidence, we also showed that DOAC vs VKA treatment was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding, but a similar risk of the composite of stroke, systemic embolism or death. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Immunotherapy, NEJM, University of Pittsburgh / 06.10.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rohit Aggarwal, MD, MS Rheumatology, Professor of Medicine Medical Director, Arthritis and Autoimmunity Center Sub-Specialty Education Coordinator Division of Rheumatology Department of Medicine University of Pittsburgh MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dermatomyositis is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects muscles and skin, although muscular forms without skin symptoms and vice versa are also seen. The exact etiology of the disease is not known but is thought to be immune-mediated with many patients having highly specific autoantibodies. There is no cure for dermatomyositis, but several types of treatment have been successfully used in the last years including different kinds of immunosuppressants (e.g. steroids) and intravenous immune globulins (IVIG) to improve the patient’s condition. So far, none of these treatments was approved for use in dermatomyositis based on large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Their effectiveness was mainly deduced from clinical experience and from small clinical trials. The ProDERM study was the first large, pivotal, randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) in dermatomyositis patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Melatonin, Pediatrics, Sleep Disorders / 28.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca Robbins, Ph.D. Instructor in Medicine Associate Scientist, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders Investigator, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders Departments of Medicine and Neurology Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Teens face myriad challenges to sleep, ranging from biological factors, including a preference for later bedtimes and increased need for sleep, to social factors, including social pressures and increased academic workloads, all limiting teenagers in their ability to keep a healthy sleep schedule. In a nationally representative sample, we explored the prevalence of another potential barrier to sleep among teens, which are a set of beliefs that are held in the population, yet are actual counter to scientific principles regarding sleep and circadian rhythms. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Sleep Disorders, Weight Research / 26.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven K. Malin, PhD, FACSM (he/him) Associate Professor Department of Kinesiology and Health | School of Arts and Sciences Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition | Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Institute of Translational Medicine and Science New Brunswick, NJ 08901 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Type 2 diabetes is a condition where blood glucose (sugar) is elevated in the  blood. This can be problematic as it leads to blood vessel damage and the promotion of cardiovascular disease. Nearly 30 million people  in the U.S. have type 2 diabetes, making it a major public health issue. The cause is not entirely clear, but many, including our team view insulin resistance as a central culprit. Insulin resistance is when the body does not respond well to the hormone insulin. Insulin is vital because it promotes glucose uptake into tissues, like skeletal muscle. Two reasons that are often used to explain the development of insulin resistance include: poor diet (e.g. high sugar and/or high fat coupled with excess calories) and a lack of physical activity. However, more recently, a lack of sleep has been raised as another critical behavioral factor contributing to insulin resistance. Thus, targeting a healthy diet, activity and sleep pattern is thought to prevent the transition from health to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Infections, Parkinson's / 22.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jiangwei Sun PhD Postdoctoral researcher in Prof. Jonas Ludvigsson's group Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: A potential infectious etiology has been hypothesized for neurodegenerative diseases, as findings in animal studies have demonstrated that infectious processes might impact pathogenesis, phenotype, and progression of neurodegenerative disease. The extrapolation of such findings to a human context is however not straightforward. previous studies have mostly examined the role of specific pathogens on a specific neurodegenerative disease, e.g., herpesvirus for Alzheimer’s disease, and influenza, hepatitis C virus, and Helicobacter pylori for PD, with inconclusive results. Although several studies have also assessed associations between infectious diseases and risk of dementia and AD, influence of potential surveillance bias (greater-than-expected surveillance of disease after infections) and reverse causation (due to for example diagnostic delay of neurodegenerative diseases) on the associations was not always fully addressed. Therefore, whether infection is indeed a risk factor rather a comorbidity or secondary event of neurodegenerative disease remains unknown. In contrast to Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, the potential link between infection and ALS has been less explored. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology, Melanoma / 22.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, the Director of the Cancer Biology Research Center led this study with an outstanding PhD student, Sabina Pozzi” Prof. Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Ph.D. Head, Cancer Research and Nanomedicine Laboratory Kurt and Herman Lion Chair in Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Director, Cancer Biology Research Center Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Sackler Faculty of Medicine Sagol School of Neuroscience Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest of all skin cancers, especially due to its tendency to invade and develop metastases with an incidence of brain metastasis development of 40% to 50% in patients with melanoma stage IV (although the incidence post mortem is 70–90%). We know that the brain microenvironment represents the first line of reaction in favor or against the tumor due to its dual ability to generate an immune-stimulatory or immunosuppressive niche, which will ultimately determine the establishment and growth of melanoma brain metastasis. Among the brain-resident cells, astrocytes are responsible for the maintenance of the brain homeostasis, and subsequent to melanoma brain colonization, they sustain and foster the growth of melanoma cells (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Frailty, Geriatrics, JAMA, Medical Research Centers, Supplements / 15.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ariela Orkaby, MD, MPH Geriatrics & Preventive Cardiology Associate Epidemiologist Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As the population is living longer, there is increased risk of frailty and vulnerability. Frailty is defined as reduced physiological reserve and decreased ability to cope with even an acute stress. Up to half of adults over the age of 85 are living with frailty and preventative measures are greatly needed. We tested the effect of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the risk of developing frailty in healthy older adults in the US enrolled in the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) trial. (more…)
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, JAMA / 15.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jing Li, PhD Assistant Professor of Health Economics The Comparative Health Outcomes, Policy and Economics (CHOICE) Institute University of Washington School of Pharmacy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Dementia and other cognitive impairment are highly prevalent among older adults in the U.S. and globally, and have been linked to deficiencies in decision-making, especially financial decision-making. However, little is known about the extent to which older adults with cognitive impairment manage their own finances and the characteristics of the assets they manage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pulmonary Disease, Surgical Research / 13.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ms. Sara Buttery Research Physiotherapist at Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust University of the West of England London, England, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the BVLR technique? Response: The CELEB trial is a multicentre randomised controlled trial that was carried out at five centres across the UK, with the objective of investigating if Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is significantly superior to Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) in people who are suitable for both procedures. BLVR is a minimally invasive method of lung volume reduction whereby a fibreoptic camera is passed through the mouth, rather than by an incision in the chest wall as is the case with LVRS. The CELEB trial compared endobronchial valves (EBVs) as a type of BLVR, to LVRS. EBVs are designed to prevent airflow into the treated lobe, but allow air and mucus to exit. EBV treatment can be carried out under general anaesthetic or sedation. The primary outcome for the CELEB trial was the iBODE index score at 12 months post procedure, as a measure of disease severity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Dermatology, JAMA / 08.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jane M. Zhu, M.D., M.P.P., M.S.H.P. Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics School of Medicine Oregon Health & Science University Portland, Oregon MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Private equity (PE) acquisitions of physician practices are accelerating across many specialties, but there is still little robust evidence on the effects of these acquisitions. Concerns about PE involvement is predicated on the fact that these firms expect high annual returns, which require either reducing costs or increasing revenue, or both. Using PE acquisition data from 2016-2020, linked to commercial claims data, we sought to understand what common mechanisms of revenue generation were being adopted after private equity acquisition of physician practices. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Cancer Research, JAMA, Lancet, Lung Cancer, Medical Imaging, Technology / 07.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Raymond H. Mak, MD Radiation Oncology Disease Center Leader for Thoracic Oncology Director of Patient Safety and QualityDirector of Clinical Innovation Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Cancer - Radiation OncologyRadiation Oncology Department of Radiation Oncology Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is the algorithm detecting? Response: Lung cancer, the most common cancer worldwide is highly lethal, but can be treated and cured in some cases with radiation therapy.  Nearly half of lung cancer patients will eventually require some form of radiation therapy, but the planning for a course of radiation therapy currently entails manual, time-consuming, and resource-intensive work by highly trained physicians to segment (target) the cancerous tumors in the lungs and adjacent lymph nodes on three-dimensional images (CT scans). Prior studies have shown substantial variation in how expert clinicians delineate these targets, which can negatively impact outcomes and there is a projected shortage of skilled medical staff to perform these tasks worldwide as cancer rates increase. To address this critical gap, our team developed deep learning algorithms that can automatically target lung cancer in the lungs and adjacent lymph nodes from CT scans that are used for radiation therapy planning, and can be deployed in seconds. We trained these artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms using expert-segmented targets from over 700 cases and validated the performance in over 1300 patients in external datasets (including publicly available data from a national trial), benchmarked its performance against expert clinicians, and then further validated the clinical usefulness of the algorithm in human-AI collaboration experiments that measured accuracy, task speed, and end-user satisfaction. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA / 06.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Samir Parekh, MBBS Hematology-Oncology, Cancer Director of Translational Research in Myeloma and Co-leader of the Cancer Clinical Investigation program The Tisch Cancer Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Clinical outcomes for myeloma patients patients have improved significantly over the past decade with the introduction and success of newer immunomodulatory treatments such as CART cell therapy and bispecific antibodies. Strategies are needed to determine the best treatment options for patients relapsing or unresponsive to initial courses of these types of therapies. We analyzed the outcomes of patients relapsing after bispecific antibody therapy for myeloma. Our data shows that sequencing of bispecific antibodies or CART after initial bispecific failure can effectively salvage patients and lead to excellent outcomes in myeloma. This provides the foundation for future studies combining this new class of immunotherapy with CART or additional bispecific antibodies to improve outcomes in myeloma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Primary Care, Stroke, USPSTF / 06.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katrina E. Donahue, M.D., M.P.H. Professor and Vice Chair of Research Chapel Hill Department of Family Medicine University of North Carolina Dr. Donahue joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2020. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death in the U.S. The Task Force found that people who are 40 to 75 years old and at high risk for heart disease should take a statin to help protect their health. People in this age group who are at increased risk but not high risk should make an individual decision with their healthcare professional about whether taking a statin is right for them. There is not enough research to determine whether statins are beneficial for people 76 years and older. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nature, Stem Cells / 05.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gianluca Amadei PhD Post-Doctoral Fellow University of Cambridge, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background of this study is that we tried to build a structure that looks and develops like a real mouse embryo using different kinds of mouse stem cells. The main findings are that the resulting structures develop the entire embryonic body axis and the extraembryonic tissues that are required to support embryonic development. Our structures develop to a stage comparable to 8.5 days of embryonic development of the natural mouse embryos and have a brain and neural tube, a beating heart-like structure, gut and primordial germ cells. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, Pulmonary Disease, Tobacco Research, University of Michigan / 04.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meilan K Han MD, MS Henry Sewall Professor of Medicine Professor of Internal Medicine and Section Head Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In the NIH sponsored SPIROMICS study we demonstrated that symptomatic, tobacco exposed individuals have frequent exacerbations. Many of these individuals are treated with the same inhaled medications that have shown benefit in COPD, but we don’t have any evidence basis for this practice. (more…)
Aging, Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, NIH, Nutrition / 01.09.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maki Inoue-Choi, Ph.D., M.S., R.D. Staff Scientist Metabolic Epidemiology Branch National Institutes of Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Tea is rich in bioactive compounds that can possibly protect against health conditions such as cancer and heart disease. A lower risk of death was seen among tea drinkers than non-drinkers in previous studies, but these were largely in populations where green tea drinking is common. In contrast, the studies in populations where black tea drinking is more common have been limited and the findings from these studies have been inconsistent. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, NEJM / 30.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Holly Morgan M.B., B.Ch. Clinical Research Fellow and REVIVED investigator King's College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Coronary artery disease is the commonest cause of heart failure.  Whilst individually tailored pharmacological and device therapy (optimal medical therapy, OMT) is the cornerstone of management of ischemic heart failure, rates of death and hospitalization for heart failure remain unacceptably high in this population.  Given the causative relationship between coronary disease and heart failure, coronary revascularization has long been considered as a treatment option for these patients.  Whilst there is randomized evidence to support surgical revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting (1), none previously existed for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Despite this, patients are frequently offered PCI in this setting (particularly if unsuitable for surgery); driven by the belief that hibernating myocardium will improve in function if blood flow is restored, regardless of the revascularization method.  This approach was supported in some international guidelines, though recommendations varied. The REVIVED-BCIS2 trial aimed to establish whether revascularization with PCI in addition to OMT would improve event free survival in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, when compared to OMT alone (2).  Inclusion criteria included a left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤35%, extensive coronary artery disease (British Cardiovascular Intervention Society jeopardy score ≥6, indicating significant stenoses in the left main coronary artery, proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, dominant circumflex artery, disease in multiple vessels or a combination of these) and viability in at least four dysfunctional myocardial segments which were amenable to PCI.  The main exclusion criteria were acute myocardial infarction within 4 weeks of randomisation, angina which limited the patient’s quality of life or decompensated heart failure or sustained ventricular arrhythmia within 72 hours. The primary composite outcome was all-cause death or hospitalization for heart failure; minimum follow up was 24 months.  Key secondary outcomes included the change in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to follow-up at six and twelve months, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularization and quality of life assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and EQ-5D-5L. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Sexual Health / 25.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Florence Z. Martin MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit Population Health Sciences Bristol Medical School University of Bristol, Bristol, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Globally, rates of caesarean section are on the rise. Many things are contributing to this, including increasing maternal age, more women who have had prior caesareans, and changes in maternal preference. One reason that women have been cited to choose a caesarean in an uncomplicated pregnancy is the maintenance of sexual wellbeing postpartum (in other words, after their baby is born). The protection of sexual wellbeing following caesarean section is thought to be via the maintenance of vaginal tone and reduced risk of vaginal tearing. However, few studies have shown this to be true. Some studies investigating sexual outcomes in the year after birth found no difference between women who gave birth vaginally and those who delivered via caesarean section. Longer term evidence is sparse, with only one study looking up to 16 years postpartum and finding that women who give birth to all their children via caesarean section are at higher risk of experiencing sex-related pain. To contribute to previous studies and provide the first piece of evidence looking at sexual wellbeing as a whole several years after delivery, we used data from the Children of the 90s study (also known as the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children or ALSPAC). We aimed to compare sexual enjoyment, sexual frequency, and sex-related pain between women who delivered via caesarean section and those who delivered vaginally up to 18 years postpartum. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hip Fractures, Vegetarians / 21.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Webster PhD Lead author Nutritional Epidemiology Group, University of Leeds MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hip fractures are the most severe consequence of osteoporosis and are a major public health problem. There are growing concerns of poor bone health and higher risk of fractures in vegetarians, but prospective studies comparing risk of hip fracture in vegetarians and meat-eaters over time are scarce and limited. A study of British men and women in the EPIC-Oxford cohort showed a greater risk of hip fracture in pescatarians, vegetarians, and vegans compared to meat-eaters. The only other study on the topic, the Adventist Health Study of US adults, found no clear evidence of a difference in hip fracture risk between vegetarians and meat-eaters, but identified hip fractures through questionnaires, which are susceptible to selective loss to follow-up. To build on previous research, we investigated the risk of hip fracture in occasional meat-eaters, pescatarians, and vegetarians compared to regular meat-eaters in middle-aged UK women, who are at a greater risk of hip fracture than men, with hip fractures accurately confirmed using objective and complete hospital records. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Stones, NEJM, Urology / 11.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Bailey Ph.D. Senior Principal Engineer, Applied Physics Laboratory Associate Professor. Mechanical Engineering Adjunct Associate Professor Urology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Small (< 6 mm) kidney stones are common and often are asymptomatic. Do you do surgery or wait for them to cause a problem? Or specifically here if you are getting surgery already for other stones that are causing a problem do you take the time and possibly extra risk of cleaning out the small stone in the kidney or in the other kidney? (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Heart Disease, Kidney Stones / 10.08.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashish Verma, MD Assistant Professor, Nephrology Department of Medicine Boston University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you tell us a little about aldosterone? Response: “Recent randomized, controlled trials have shown that a drug called finerenone is effective in delaying CKD progression and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. However, the role of aldosterone in this process was not directly investigated and levels of the hormone were not measured,” “Since excessive levels of aldosterone is common, yet mostly unrecognized, we hypothesized that one reason why finerenone was effective in lowering the risk of CKD progression was that it was treating unrecognized high concentrations of the hormone.” To study this we investigated the associations between aldosterone concentrations in the blood and kidney disease progression among 3680 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which ran in seven clinics in the US between 2003 and 2008. The participants were aged between 21 and 74 years old. Aldosterone is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, which sit above the kidneys. Its main role is to regulate salt and water in the body, and so it plays a central role in controlling blood pressure. Too much of it can lead to high blood pressure, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. (more…)