Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Stanford / 07.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael E. Belloy, PhD Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences Stanford University, Stanford, California MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Apolipoprotein E (APOE)*2 and APOE*4 are, respectively, the strongest protective and risk-increasing, genetic variants for late-onset Alzheimer disease. As such, one’s APOE genotype is highly relevant towards clinical trial design and Alzheimer’s disease research. However, most insights so far are focused on the associations of these APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in non-Hispanic white individuals. One important aspect of our work is that we really increased sample sizes for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and East Asian individuals, so that we now have better understanding of the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk in these groups. In complement, we also did the largest investigation to date on the role of ancestry on the associations of APOE genotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk. The scale of our study was thus a critical factor in generating novel insights. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, McGill, Mental Health Research / 06.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Niki Hosseini-Kamkar PhD Postdoc, McGill University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our primary question was: Do adults with a history of childhood trauma have altered brain responses to psychological challenges? Previous evidence indicated that this can occur in laboratory animals, but it has been unclear whether it occurs in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 06.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prakriti Gaba, MD Cardiovascular Medicine Fellow Brigham and Women's Hospital Deepak L. Bhatt MD MPH Director of Mount Sinai Fuster Heart Hospital Dr. Valentin Fuster Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  Response: Accurate classification of acute myocardial infarction is instrumental for the appropriate diagnosis and effective management of patients suffering from this widely prevalent cardiovascular condition. In the past, there have been a variety of clinical scores published to advise clinicians on the best classifications schemes for patients with acute MI. These have included the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, the HEART score, and the Killip classification. The strength of these traditional scores includes their practicality, as they can be implemented at the bedside to rapidly assist with prognostication. Nonetheless, as technologic advancements have made imaging and tissue identification more accessible, national and international committees are looking to revise traditional classification schemes of acute MI with novel ones leveraging multimodal approaches. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease / 03.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lotus Mallbris, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Vice President of Immunology Development Eli Lilly MedicalResearch.com: Would you briefly describe the condition of Crohn's disease and who is most susceptible to this disease? Response: Crohn's disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can cause systemic inflammation manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and weight loss. It can lead to intestinal obstruction, fibrosis and other complications. Approximately 900,000 patients in the U.S. and 1 million patients in Europe are currently suffering from Crohn’s disease, and 70% of those have moderate to severe disease. Although the majority of patients are started on conventional therapy such as corticosteroids and immunomodulators, many will unfortunately progress to having moderate to severe disease. Furthermore, current therapies to treat Crohn’s disease often fail to achieve remission for a majority of patients, and of the patients who do achieve remission, a substantial proportion lose it within the first year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eli Lilly, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM / 02.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marla C. Dubinsky, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Co- director, Susan and Leonard Feinstein IBD Clinical Center Mount Sinai Health System MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you briefly describe the condition of UC? Response: Lucent 1 and Lucent 2 were the induction and maintenance registration trials studying the efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients 18 years and older with moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis. Mirikizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL23. Lucent-3 is the open label extension arm for those meeting inclusion criteria after completing Lucent 2. This study evaluated the long term efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in patients with ulcerative colitis who completed a total of 104 weeks of active mirikizumab treatment. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic incurable inflammatory condition of colon. Common symptoms include diarrhea, blood in the stool, abdominal cramping and bowel urgency. Bowel urgency is one of the most burdensome symptoms that a patient with you could experience. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 01.11.2023

pexels.com/photo/fried-fish-in-vegetables-18750045US News & World Report announced  that the Mediterranean style of eating is the best overall diet for 2023.  Only 24 diets were ranked instead of 40 that were analyzed in the past years. Vegan, vegetarian, Nordic, traditional Asian and the glycemic index were integrated into the Mediterranean because of the ‘underlying plant-based principles.’ According to managing editor Gretel Schueller who oversees the annual diet ranking, they are always looking for more health conditions that they can address, but the lack of scientific data for examining other types of diets is a constraint.
Why Aim for Healthy Eating?
The specific recommendations for a healthy diet may differ, but the common approaches include consumption of a variety of fruits and veggies, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Added sugars, salt, and saturated fats must be limited. For example, a healthy mouth is part of overall health. Research has demonstrated the link between gum disease and chronic health conditions such as heart disease, and diabetes, among others. Thus, it is vital to consume healthy foods that promote good gum health which are the foundation of solid teeth.
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Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Environmental Risks / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Takeshi Asai Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Japan Faculty of Physical Education, International Pacific University Okayama, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, contact and droplet transmission were considered the main routes of infection. However, it was later demonstrated that airborne transmission is an important route. Therefore, accumulating real-world data on airborne transmission was deemed crucial. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter A. Harmer, PhD, MPH, AT-Ret, FACSM Senior Associate Research Scientist Oregon Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Decline in various aspects of cognitive function, such as memory, executive function, and multitasking ability is common as we age. The rate and extent of decline varies among older adults but approximately 20% of those aged 65+ will experience clinically relevant mild cognitive impairment, which places them at increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias. It is also associated with decreased mobility, increased risk of falls and impaired capacity for complex activities of daily living. Research has shown that physical and mental activity may attenuate the decline and that combined physical/mental challenges may be more effective than either alone but up to this point there has been little quality clinical evidence. Building on previous successful studies with our established tai ji quan therapy, we developed a cognitively-enhanced training tai ji quan protocol to determine its effectiveness in enhancing global cognition and dual-task walking compared to our standard tai ji quan program and a stretching program in adults 65+ with mild cognitive impairment or self-reported memory concerns. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Lung Cancer, NIH, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Stanford / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Summer S Han, PhD Associate Professor Quantitative Sciences Unit Stanford Center for Biomedical Informatics Research (BMIR) Department of Neurosurgery and Department of Medicine Department of Epidemiology & Population Health (by Courtesy) Stanford University School of Medicine Dr. Eunji Choi PhD Instructor, Neurosurgery Department: Adult Neurosurgery Stanford University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, killing about 127,000 people annually, but it can be treatable if detected early.
  • Low-dose computed tomography, or CT scan, has been shown to significantly reduce the number of lung cancer deaths. But because the radiation delivered by the scans can be harmful (they use on average about 10 times the radiation of standard X-rays), only those people at relatively high risk for lung cancer should be screened. The two biggest risk factors for lung cancer are exposure to tobacco smoke and age. Current national guidelines that rely on age and smoking exposure to recommend people for lung cancer screening are disproportionally failing minority populations including African Americans, according to a new study led by researchers at Stanford Medicine.
  • In 2021, the national guidelines by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued revised recommendation guidelines on lung cancer screening, lowering the start age from 55-year to 50-year and the smoking pack-year criterion from 30 to 20, compared to the 2013 USPSTF criteria. In comparison to the 2013 criteria, the new modifications have been shown to lessen racial disparities in screening eligibility between African Americans and Whites. However, potential disparities across other major racial groups in the U.S., such as Latinos, remains poorly examined.
  • Meanwhile, risk prediction model assesses a person’s risk score of developing an illness, such as lung cancer.
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Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 01.11.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna Rosemarie Yousaf MD CDC: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but serious complication following SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 illness in children characterized by fever and multiple organ inflammation. This study looks at data from children with MIS-C reported to CDC’s national MIS-C surveillance system and compares the characteristics of children who died to children who survived. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Thyroid / 27.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maaike van Gerwen, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Institute for Translational Epidemiolog Director of Research Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Where are these PFAS chemicals found? Response: Over the past decades, we have seen an increasing trend in thyroid cancer which cannot be fully explained by increased use of medical imaging (including ultrasound). Certain environmental exposure are known to impact on the thyroid gland, including thyroid dysfunction or development of cancer. PFAS are chemicals that are known to disrupt the function of endocrine organs, such as the thyroid gland. We therefore hypothesized that PFAS exposure may be one of the potential risk factors for thyroid cancer and thus one of the potential reason for the increasing thyroid cancer incidence. PFAS chemicals are widespread in the environment and have been found in the soil, water, and air. PFAS are also widely used in a variety of consumer products including non-stick cookware, stain resisting fabric, firefighting foams, but are also found in drinking water and food. This leads to an almost universal exposure of the general population. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston / 22.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David B. Corry, M.D. Professor of Pathology & Immunology and Medicine Vice Chair for Immunology Department of Pathology & Immunology Biology of Inflammation Center Dan L. Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center   Clarence and Irene H. Fulbright Chair in Pathology Baylor College of Medicine Michael E. Debakey VA Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Can candida species cross the blood brain barrier? Response: We showed earlier (2019) that the common fungus Candida albicans can enter the brain from the blood. That earlier study was in turn inspired by the finding of another research group that had found Candida in the brains of persons suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementing illnesses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 16.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John A. Batsis, MD, FACP, AGSF, FGSA, FTOS Associate Professor Division of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine Department of Nutrition, The Gillings School of Global Public Health Chapel Hill, NC 27599 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The rationale for this study is that there has been a flurry of new medications that have been approved for the treatment of obesity in older adults. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our main findings are that the rates of weight loss promoting (WLP) medications (those that are prescribed for weight loss or have evidence that lead to significant weight loss) are rising and that there is a robust association between the rates of limitations (physical limitations, instrumental activities of daily living, and basic activities of daily living) and the use of weight loss promoting medications. In those persons with obesity, older adults taking weight loss promoting have higher rates of being of physical limitations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emory, Infections, JAMA, MRSA / 10.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. John Jernigan, MD MS Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases Emory University School of Medicine Branch Chief Epidemiology, Research and Innovations Branch CDC Center for Disease Control MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Staphylococcus aureus commonly causes infections in ICUs. One approach to preventing these infections is using nasal mupirocin plus chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing for ICU patients. This practice is known to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and all-cause. bloodstream infections.  This practice has been broadly adopted in ICUs in the US, but adoption of mupirocin as a universal topical antibiotic has been slowed by concerns for engendering mupirocin resistance. This cluster-randomized trial in adult ICUs was conducted to assess whether universal nasal antiseptic povidone-iodine (iodophor), to which minimal S. aureus resistance is expected, was an acceptable alternative to universal nasal mupirocin for reducing S. aureus and MRSA clinical cultures in the setting of daily CHG bathing. Those who received chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing with mupirocin had an 18% reduction in risk of Staphylococcus aureus clinical cultures and a 15% reduction in risk of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical cultures compared to patients who received CHG bathing with intranasal iodophor.  These results show that using mupirocin for nasal decolonization may be preferred over iodophor because it is more effective at preventing S. aureus infections. (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods, Pain Research / 07.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Leana Pande Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Buprenorphine is not a new drug. It was developed in the 1960s with the intent of providing the benefits of opioids, without the addictive side effects. Unlike many prescription opioids,1 use of this Schedule III drug is increasing.2 It is often characterized as a partial agonist at the mu-opioid receptor (Figure-Right). Buprenorphine is available in many routes of administration and also with (brand name Suboxone) or without naloxone. Buprenorphine is a first-line pharmacotherapy for pregnant women with OUD.3 This review was completed in order for the benefits, and risks, of buprenorphine to be more fully appreciated and inform utilization for both opioid use disorder (OUD) and the treatment of pain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Technology / 06.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: HUANYU “LARRY” CHENG Ph.D. Associate Professor and Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in Engineering James L. Henderson, Jr. Memorial Associate Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics Penn State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although increasing efforts have been devoted to the development of non-invasive wearable electrochemical sweat sensors for monitoring physiological and metabolic information, most of them still suffer from poor stability and specificity over time and fluctuating pH and temperatures. laser-induced graphene is the low-cost platform for the early identification and continuous monitoring of different biomarkers for non-invasive disease diagnosis and treatment evaluation However, low sensitivity and limited surface area can limit the detection of ultra-low biomarker concentration in sweat or other fluids. As a result, a wide range of conductive nanomaterials has been incorporated into the porous structure of LIG to increase the available surface area, facilitate electron transfer, and enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the electrode but those nanomaterial modifications are hard to manufacture reproducibly, and they are not long-term stable. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a highly sensitive, selective, low-cost, and long-term stable flexible sensing platform for continuous and accurate healthcare monitoring. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Melanoma / 06.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mitchell Stark B.App.Sc (Hons), PhD UQ Amplify Senior Research Fellow Skin Cancer Genomics and Biomarker Discovery Group Leader Frazer Institute Faculty of Medicine The University of Queensland Translational Research Institute Woolloongabba, QLD 4102   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Nodular melanoma (NM) is one of the most aggressive subtypes of melanoma. Despite making up only 14 per cent of cases, it is the largest contributor to melanoma deaths. Nodular melanoma is difficult to catch early because it grows fast and has often spread deeper in the skin by the time it’s diagnosed. Around a quarter of NM cases also appear as a skin-coloured tumour, which might go unnoticed for longer. In this study we wanted to determine whether there were genetic variants associated with nodular melanoma, which might contribute to nodular melanoma risk. We identified 39 genes with rare DNA variants which had the greatest frequency in nodular melanoma patients compared to non-NM patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 04.10.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabriele Martelli, MD Breast Unit, Surgery Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Milan, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Approximately 8% of breast cancer cases are associated with pathogenic germline variants of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Women with a pathogenic BRCA1 variant have lifetime risks of breast or ovarian cancer of 45% to 80% and 30% to 60%, respectively. Women with a pathogenic BRCA2 variant have lifetime risks of breast or ovarian cancer of 35% to 60% and 10% to 25%, respectively. BRCA1 breast cancer is often more aggressive than sporadic disease, while BRCA2 breast cancer is often of similar aggressivity to sporadic disease. However, few studies have investigated outcomes of breast-conserving surgery, prophylactic mastectomy, or prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with BRCA1/2 breast cancer. We conducted a cohort study to assess outcomes of breast-conserving surgery vs mastectomy, prophylactic mastectomy vs no prophylactic mastectomy, and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy vs no prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in patients with BRCA1/2 breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Neurological Disorders, Science, UCLA / 29.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Sofroniew, MD, PhD Professor UCLA School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How did this study differ from your previous work on this topic? Response: After spinal cord injuries, nerve fibers that are damaged do not spontaneously regrow across injury sites. In previous studies, our group of collaborators identified a combination of interventions that could stimulate damaged nerve fibers to regrow for short distances across injuries, but we found that in spite of this short distance regrowth there was no recovery of functions. The present study examined what type of regrowth might be necessary to re-establish functions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Devon Payne-Sturges, DrPH, MPH, MEngr
Associate Professor
Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health
School of Public Health
University of Maryland, College Park

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: My co-authors and I conducted this study to fill a knowledge gap and to inform the work of Project TENDR. No systematic or scoping review had examined both exposure disparities and the joint effects of combined exposures of environmental neurotoxicants and social disadvantage as they relate to disparities in neurodevelopmental outcomes specifically among children living in the U.S.

Our study is the first to summarize the evidence on 7 neurotoxicants that children in the U.S. are routinely exposed to and we examined both disparities in these exposures and disparities in the effects of those exposures on children’s brain development, cognition, and behavior by race, ethnicity, and economic status.

We reviewed over 200 independent studies spanning five decades from 1974 to 2022 on social disparities in exposure to 7 exemplar neurotoxic chemicals and pollutants, including chemical mixtures, and their relationship with disparities with neurodevelopmental outcomes among children in the U.S.

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Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 26.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Esa M. Davis, M.D., M.P.H , F.A.A.F.P Professor of Medicine and Family and Community Medicine Associate Vice President of Community Health and Senior Associate Dean of pPopulation Health and Community Medicine University of Maryland School of Medicine Dr. Davis joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 Esa M. Davis, M.D., M.P.H , F.A.A.F.P Professor of Medicine and Family and Community Medicine Associate Vice President of Community Health and Senior Associate Dean of pPopulation Health and Community Medicine University of Maryland School of Medicine Dr. Davis joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2021 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia, are among the leading causes of serious complications and death for pregnant people in the United States. Pregnant women and pregnant people of all genders should have their blood pressure measured at each prenatal visit to help find and prevent serious health issues related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.  (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews / 25.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Elisabet Jerlhag Holm Department of Pharmacology Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology The University of Gothenburg MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a conditioned associated with morbidity, mortality and costs for society. There are today 4 approved medications, but given the heterogeneity of the disease the efficacy of these is limited and new medications are needed. Peptides of the gut-brain axis, such as GLP-1, have been implied as novel treatment targets. We therefore investigated the effect of an agonist for GLP-1, semaglutide, on alcohol drinking in rodents. (more…)
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Technology / 15.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Hidde ten Berg  Department Emergency Medicine and Dr. Steef Kurstjens Department of Clinical cChemistry and Haematology Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: At this moment we are still in the exploratory phase, and therefore, there is no widespread or routine usage of ChatGPT in Emergency Medicine. That said, there are instances where individual physicians have used ChatGPT for specific purposes. These may include facilitating bureaucratic tasks that can often be time-consuming, aiding in writing e-mails or texts, and serving as a brainstorming tool when dealing with complex medical cases and questions. Though not yet a standardized practice, these isolated examples demonstrate a growing interest for the potential application of this novel technology. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Education, Karolinski Institute / 15.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lotfi Khemiri
Centre for Psychiatry Research
Stockholm, SwedenLotfi Khemiri Centre for Psychiatry Research Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Our study used large-scale national register data in close to 2 million children, and found that parental abuse of both alcohol and drugs are associated with increased risk of intellectual disability in the offspring. Importantly, the risk increase was observed in both mothers and fathers which to the best of our knowledge is a novel finding, and may be explained by both genetic and environmental factors including toxic effects of substance intake on fetal development. (more…)

Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 03.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Robert Eves Research Associate at Universität Bielefeld Honorary research fellow at the University of Warwick Guest researcher at DIW Berlin MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: When an infant is born their birthweight percentile is often calculated. This indicates how big the infant is relative to other infants born at the same gestational age (weeks of pregnancy). In long-term follow-up of at-risk infants, being born below the 10th percentile has been considered a risk factor for later cognitive development. However, we thought that this above or below the 10th percentile cut-off was unlikely to reflect the true association between birthweight percentiles and later cognitive development. First of all, we thought that it was unlikely that there would be a dramatic difference between someone born at the 9th vs. 11th percentile. Secondly, we wanted to determine if there was a point when birthweight percentiles could get too large (i.e is there a Goldilocks effect, maybe you should not be too small but not too big either) (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, STD, USPSTF / 01.09.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Stevermer, M.D., M.S.P.H.Vice chair for clinical affairs Professor of family and community medicine University of Missouri Medical director of MU Health Care Family Medicine–Callaway Physicians, Dr. Stevermer joined the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force in January 2021. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: HIV continues to be a significant public health issue. The good news is that PrEP is a safe, highly effective way to help prevent HIV in people at increased risk. There are now two ways people can take PrEP – as a pill or as a shot. We encourage healthcare professionals to have a conversation with their patients about their individual risk for HIV and determine if they should consider taking whichever form of PrEP would work best for them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis / 30.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Luke Cavanah, BS Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It is well-known that schedule II stimulants, which are those that are highly addictive and include amphetamine, methylphenidate, and lisdexamfetamine, have had increasing use and misuse in the US. Despite understanding the presence of this phenomenon, the reason for it is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to see if rising rates of schedule II stimulants are related to the legalization of medical marijuana. We were interested in this because schedule II stimulants are primarily used as the treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic cannabis use has been demonstrated to cause neurocognitive deficits resembling that of ADHD, and the conditions have been shown to affect similar brain regions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, JAMA, Surgical Research, Vanderbilt / 30.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher Wallis, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Urology Department of Surgery University of Toronto and Urologic Oncologist Mount Sinai Hospital   MedicalResearch.com:  Could you give a little context - what was the question you were looking at?
  • We have been studying how the primary treating surgeons sociocultural characteristics impact the recovery of patients they are looking after.
  • Specifically, we have been studying the effect of surgeon sex on outcomes such as death, complications and readmission after common and complex surgeries. These are outcomes that are important to patients and the health system.
  • Previously, we showed that patients with a female surgeon had better short term (30 day) outcomes than similar patients having surgery with a man. This study asked the question of whether the sex of a patient’s surgeon affects patients’ longer term outcomes at 90 days and 1 year, after surgery.
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Author Interviews, Dermatology, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 28.08.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alexis Elias Malavazos Endocrinology Unit Clinical Nutrition and Cardiovascular Prevention Service, IRCCS Policlinico Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Italy   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease often associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The inflammatory process of psoriasis can target adipose tissue depots, particularly those surrounding the heart and the coronary arteries, exposing them to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (more…)