AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Social Issues, UCSD / 03.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Natalie Golaszewski, PhD Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Social isolation and loneliness are growing public health concerns as they are associated with health conditions that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease including obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, NYU, USPSTF / 02.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH Dr. Adolph & Margaret Berger Professor of Population Health Director, Division of Health & Behavior Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change Department of Population Health NYU Langone Health NYU School of Medicine Member of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?  Response: Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) is the most common type of irregular heartbeat and a major risk factor for stroke, and it often goes undetected. For this recommendation, the Task Force evaluated whether screening adults over the age of 50 who do not have any signs or symptoms of AFib can help prevent strokes. In its evidence review, Task Force expanded its scope to include a search for studies on portable and wearable devices such as smartphones and fitness trackers in addition to electrocardiography (ECG). Despite this consideration, the Task Force found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening for AFib. This is consistent with the Task Force’s 2018 recommendation. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA / 28.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eva Petkova, PhD Professor, NYU School of Medicine Department of Population Health Division of Biostatistics Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York, NY 10016 Senior Scientist, Nathan Kline Institute of Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY 10962 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: The COMPILE study is based on real-time collection of individual patient data from 8 international completed, terminated early and ongoing randomized clinical trials testing the efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Recruitment covered the period from March 2020 to March 2021 in Asia, Europe, North and South America. Total of 2369 patients were enrolled and data from 2341 patients were used in the analysis. COMPILE, the largest study of convalescent plasma for hospitalized COVID-19 patients to date, provided robust information on a diverse patient population, which allowed rigorous evaluation of questions related to convalescent plasma efficacy. The main findings are that convalescent plasma might have only a moderate efficacy on average, but that there is a huge heterogeneity in the benefits for individual patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Emory, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 27.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Howa Yeung, MD MScHe/him/his Assistant Professor of Dermatology Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA 30322 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial group in the United States but are underrepresented in health research. Existing research often categorize Asian Americans into a single racial category, which may mask differences in health behaviors and outcomes subgroups. We sought to examine potential differences in skin cancer-related risk factors and screening among Asian Americans in a large, nationally representative study. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 26.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tasleem J. Padamsee, PhD Co-Leader  C3-REACH -- Committed to Communities Collaborative: Research and Engagement to Advance beyond COVID to Health EquityPrincipal Investigator The Daughter Sister Mother Project: Empowering Women and their Healthcare Providers to Fight Familial Cancer Lead Qualitative Investigator WOW Project: Washington & Ohio Workers Study Assistant Professor Division of Health Services Management & Policy, College of Public Health Faculty Affiliate, James Comprehensive Cancer Center The Ohio State University MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: This is a study about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the United States. Although there has been a lot of discussion about vaccine hesitancy as a barrier to achieving high rates of COVID-19 vaccination, there have been few studies of changes in hesitancy - or how it might vary across groups. As COVID-19 vaccines were becoming available in the US there was a lot of discussion about worrisome rates of vaccine hesitancy, particularly among communities of color. Our team suspected, however, that these high rates might be short-lived, and that Black Americans in particular might become willing to use COVID-19 vaccines after a short period of time - as they became reassured that they would be safe, effective, and protect communities. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Emory, Heart Disease, JAMA / 25.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew Oster, MD, MPH CDC COVID-19 Response CDC Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Pediatric Cardiologist, Sibley Heart Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Emory University School of Medicine Emory University Rollins School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: More than 192 million people ages 12 years and older in the U.S. received at least one dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines from December 2020 through August 2021. From this population, VAERS (the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) received 1,991 reports of myocarditis,  1,626 of which met the case definition of myocarditis. Rates of myocarditis were highest following the second dose of an mRNA vaccine among males aged 12–15 years (70.7 per million doses of Pfizer), 16-17 years (105.9 per million doses of Pfizer), and 18–47 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of Pfizer and Moderna, respectively). Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years and the median time from vaccination to symptom onset was two days. Males accounted for 82% of patients for whom sex was known. Approximately 96% were hospitalized, 87% of whose symptoms had gone away by the time they were discharged from the hospital. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676, 87%) were the most common treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Rheumatology / 24.01.2022

Stephen Connelly, PhD Co-founder & Chief Scientific Officer Equillium, Inc. San Diego, California MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that predominantly affects women in the reproductive age range. Approximately 50% of SLE patients experience lupus nephritis (LN), a serious complication that is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Progression of LN to chronic kidney disease is common, with 10% of patients with LN developing end-stage kidney disease. T cells, play a central role in the pathogenesis of both SLE and LN by mediating tissue damage and enhancing the production of autoantibodies by promoting B cell differentiation, proliferation, and maturation. These T cells express CD6, a costimulatory receptor that through its binding to activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), expressed on immune cells and tissues, modulates both the activity and trafficking of effector T cells (Teff). The expression of both CD6 and ALCAM (CD6-ALCAM pathway) have been associated with pathogenic effector T cell activity and trafficking in multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Based on a comprehensive screen of more than 1100 urine proteins, soluble urinary ALCAM (uALCAM) was identified as one of only a few molecules that were elevated in the urine of patients with SLE with active renal involvement compared with patients with quiescent or no prior nephritis. However, no studies had been conducted to characterize the cellular sources of the soluble ALCAM and questions remained about the relevance of this protein and whether it was associated with the pathology of the disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Orthopedics / 20.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Matthew Costa Professor of Orthopaedic Trauma University of Oxford Honorary Consultant Trauma Surgeon, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Fixation with metal implants provides reliable functional outcomes for patients after a manipulation of a displaced fracture of the distal radius, but such surgery carries risk for the patient and is expensive. A moulded plaster cast is a safer and cheaper intervention but may not provide the same functional outcome. It is not known which of these treatments is superior. (more…)
Author Interviews, Ophthalmology, PLoS / 20.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Jugnoo S Rahi Professor of Ophthalmic Epidemiology and Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist NIHR Senior Investigator Head, Vision and Eyes Group UCL HeadPopulation Policy and Practice Research and Teaching Department GOS ICH UCL Director, Ulverscroft Vision Research Group  GOS Institute of Child Health UCL / Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust Institute of Ophthalmology UCL / NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Research Centre Chair, Academic Committee Chair, British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit Executive Committee Royal College of Ophthalmologists  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?    Response: We hypothesised that if changing environmental factors, in particular educational experience, are accounting for increasing frequency of myopia in the UK, a cohort effect would be discernible in changing associations with myopia, with different profiles for childhood and adult-onset forms. We investigated this using the UK Biobank Study, a unique large contemporary adult population sample whose members, born over a period of more than three decades, have undergone a detailed ophthalmic examination. This affords the opportunity to analyse ‘historical’ cohorts covering a period of important socio-demographic, economic, and educational change in the UK from which current and emerging trends may be identified and examined. Drawing on our previous proof-of-concept study, we investigated whether there were differences between childhood-onset versus adult-onset myopia in temporal trends in both frequency and severity and in associations with key environmental factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Multiple Sclerosis / 19.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcus Koch MD PhD Associate Professor of Neurology Multiple Sclerosis Program University of Calgary MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is the least common, but also the least treatable form of multiple sclerosis. PPMS does not react well to commonly used MS treatments. We believe that this is at least in part because PPMS is driven by other disease mechanisms. One disease mechanism that we believe is important in PPMS is microglial activation. Microglial cells are a type of cell in the brain and spinal cord that normally have beneficial functions, such as clearing debris or assisting repair after injury. In PPMS however, microglial cells are chronically active, and we believe that this chronic microglial activation contributes to tissue damage. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pediatrics / 18.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward Bell, MD Professor of Pediatrics-Neonatology Vice Chair for Faculty Development, Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has supported the Neonatal Research Network (NRN) since 1986. The NRN, a group of US academic centers, is tasked with conducting research to improve the treatment and health outcomes of premature and critically-ill babies in US neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Every few years, the NRN publishes reports on the survival rates and outcomes of surviving extremely premature babies, those born before 28 weeks of gestation. These reports help us to judge progress in the care and outcomes of these infants. This paper is the 9th in this series of reports but the first that includes not only survival and in-hospital outcomes but also outcomes at 2 years of age.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, Gastrointestinal Disease, Nature, Sugar / 17.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Rupprecht, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Kelly L Buchanan The Laboratory of Gut Brain Neurobiology Duke Medicine – GI Diego V. Bohórquez PhD Associate Professor in Medicine Duke Institute for Brain Sciences Durham, NC MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: In 2018, my laboratory discovered that a cell type in the gut epithelium synapses with the vagus nerve, the nerve which connects the gut and the brain. These gut cells are called neuropod cells. Neuropod cells transduce sugar within milliseconds using the neurotransmitter glutamate. Since then, we have been interested in defining how this rapid communication between neuropod cells and the brain regulates behavior. – Diego Bohórquez Over a decade ago, it was shown that the gut is the key site for discerning sugar and non-caloric sweetener. But the specific cell in the gut that underlies this effect was unknown. – Kelly Buchanan   (more…)
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 13.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua D. Bundy, PhD, MPH Department of Epidemiology Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine and Tulane University Translational Science Institute New Orleans Louisiana MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What is included in the KFRE score? Response: Kidney function is quantified using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which is often calculated in clinical practice using filtration markers like serum creatinine and/or cystatin C, and patient characteristics like age, sex, and race. Recently, new eGFR equations were created that remove race adjustment because of concerns that using a patient’s race may perpetuate racial inequities in healthcare delivery. The Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) is the most commonly-used tool to predict end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) risk and includes age, sex, eGFR, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. We sought to evaluate the impact of removing race from eGFR on prediction of ESKD.  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Environmental Risks, Technology / 13.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Krystal Pollitt, PhD, P.Eng. Assistant Professor of Epidemiology (Environmental Health Sciences) Assistant Professor in Chemical and Environmental Engineering Affiliated Faculty, Yale Institute for Global Health Yale School of Public Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: People infected with COVID-19 can release SARS-CoV-2 virus in aerosol and droplets when they exhale. This can be from coughing or sneezing but also when they speaker or just breathe. While the larger droplets can settle to the ground quickly (seconds to minutes), smaller aerosol can remain in the air in longer periods (minutes to hours). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by inhaling aerosol or droplets containing infectious virus. The Fresh Air Clip enables detection of droplet and aerosol containing virus. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Global Health, Lancet / 12.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Dianna J Magliano PhD Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute Melbourne Australia  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Mortality among people with diabetes, and how it changes over time, is an important indicator of quality of and access to health care. However, population level trends in mortality among people with diabetes are inadequately described. The establishment of national diabetes registers, health insurance data and administrative data has allowed the examination of mortality among those with diabetes at a granular level which has been previously not possible. This has allowed us to examine whether global efforts in regards to diabetes care over the last couple of decades have been effective. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Gastrointestinal Disease / 11.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Morgan Walker Ph.D. Candidate, UNC-Chapel Hill Chemistry Redinbo Laboratory MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Where is triclosan commonly found? Response: Triclosan is a commonly found antibacterial compound present in hand soaps, toothpastes, athletic clothes, and children’s toys. A previous study by the Zhang group (corresponding author on this publication) found that antimicrobial compounds including triclosan increased inflammation (similar to that of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) and tumor formation in the colon. These effects were observed only in mice with an intact gut microbiome, not in germ-free mice which lack a gut microbiome, suggesting that the gut microbiome is somehow responsible for the toxicity of triclosan to the gut. Our study investigates how gut bacteria promote triclosan toxicity in the gut  (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Pediatrics / 11.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stephen Freedman MDCM, MSc Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine Alberta Children’s Hospital Foundation Professor in Child Health and Wellness Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine University of Calgary MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: During the early stages of the global 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, children represented fewer than 5% of reported cases.  However, children now represent a significant percent of all new COVID-19 cases.  Similarly, pediatric hospitalizations due to COVID-19, are now at an all-time high.  Although COVID-19 is generally mild in children, severe outcomes and death do occur.  The risk of severe outcomes among SARS-CoV-2 infected children is poorly understood with estimates varying considerably between study designs, settings, and regions.  Studies generally include large administrative databases (i.e. community based), hospitalized populations, and children admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Identified risk factors for severe COVID-19 in children have included young (i.e. 1-3 months) or old (15-18 years) pediatric age group, male sex, and pre-existing medical condition.  However, data from large prospective cohort studies which include children with early or mild stages of disease seeking emergency department (ED) care are lacking. To address this knowledge gap we sought to quantify the frequency of and risk factors for severe outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected children enrolled in a prospective ED-based cohort study.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Pediatrics / 07.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel Myran, MD, MPH, CCFP, FRCPC Family and Public Health and Preventive Medicine Physician CIHR Fellow, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute Department of Family Medicine Innovation Fellow University of Ottawa MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Canada legalized recreational, or non-medical, cannabis in October 2018. Canada took phased approach to legalization initially only allowing flower-based cannabis products and oils and after one year permitting the sale of commercial cannabis edibles (e.g. THC containing candies, baked goods, and drinks). In this study we took advantage of this phased roll out of legal cannabis to understand the impact of legalization on cannabis exposures or poisonings in children aged 0-9 years and the contribution of different types of cannabis products to these events. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nutrition, Supplements / 06.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Rana Conway PhD RNutr  Research Fellow Energy Balance & Cancer Group, and Obesity Research Group Research Department of Behavioural Science and Health University College London    MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We’ve seen great advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment in recent years which means the number of people living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis is rapidly increasing. The WCRF and CRUK recommend improving diet and exercise to reduce the risks of cancer coming back but we know anecdotally that supplements are sometimes seen as an easier option, and people who’ve had cancer are often interested to know if they should be taking any supplements.    (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Pediatrics / 06.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dani Dumitriu, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (in Psychiatry) The Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology Columbia University, New York MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: A lot of research has focused on the effects of COVID-19 in various vulnerable populations, such as elderly individuals, immunocompromised patients, and individuals with severe comorbidities. However, one vulnerable population that has remained relatively understudied are the infants exposed to maternal COVID-19 disease during pregnancy. While early on in the pandemic we and other groups showed reassuring data on low risk of vertical transmission, meaning the passing of the virus from mother-to-infant is rare, this does not necessarily mean that these infants wouldn't experience long-term consequences related to the maternal infection through other means. We know from other viral illness that maternal illness, most commonly through the activation of her immune system, can lead to a cascade of events that affect fetal development. This is why a large number of physicians and researchers at Columbia University spearheaded the COVID-19 Mother Baby Outcomes (COMBO) Initiative -- to look at potential long-term health effects on both infants and mothers. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, OBGYNE / 05.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura Schummers, ScD (she/her/hers) Postdoctoral Fellow, Contraception and Abortion Research Team CIHR Patient-Oriented Research Leadership Fellow Post-doctoral Trainee, ICES McMaster UBC - Department of Family Practice | Women's Health Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Canada was the first country in the world to remove all supplemental restrictions on the dispensing and administration of mifepristone, making the drug available as a normal prescription. This meant that the abortion pill could be prescribed by any doctor or nurse practitioner, dispensed by any pharmacist, and taken by patients when, where and if they choose. (more…)
Author Interviews / 05.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Thomas Blank PD Dr. Institute of Neuropathology, Faculty of Medicine University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There has been growing evidence of the benefits of fecal transplants in some medical conditions, like cancer, hypertension and obesity for several years. In fish, it’s been shown that their lifespan could be extended significantly after fecal transplant from young fish. When we found an impact on cognitive function in mice from a fecal transplant, we decided to research and isolate how that biological mechanism was implemented. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity, UCLA / 03.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ting Martin Ma, MD, PhD Resident Physician Amar U. Kishan, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology Vice-Chair of Clinical and Translational Research Department of Radiation Oncology at UCLA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We know from epidemiologic studies that  Black men are more likely to be diagnosed with and die of prostate cancer than White men. Recent studies hinted that Black men had better oncological outcome (such as prostate cancer specific mortality and overall survival) responding to systemic therapy for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. cancer that has spread or metastasized to other parts of the body). The question we were trying to answer in this study is: is there a difference in outcomes between Black and White men with localized prostate cancer (cancer that has not spread) receiving definitive radiotherapy enrolled in clinical trials?  (more…)
Author Interviews, Eating Disorders, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Pediatrics / 31.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sean C. Rose, MD Child Neurology Nationwide Children’s Hospital The Ohio State University, Columbus MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between repetitive head impacts during youth contact sports and worse neurocognitive outcomes.   Most research has been conducted in older adults, while the research in children is mostly limited to 1-2 sports seasons. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Opiods / 28.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julie O’Donnell, PhD MPH Division of Overdose Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC National Network of Public Health Institutes New Orleans, Louisiana MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The estimated number of drug overdose deaths in the US surpassed 100,000 over a 12-month period for the first time during May 2020-April 2021, driven by the involvement of synthetic opioids other than methadone (mainly illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF)), according to data from the National Vital Statistics System. The State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS) is a CDC-funded surveillance program that has collected detailed data on unintentional and undetermined intent drug overdose deaths since 2016 from death certificates, medical examiner and coroner reports, and full postmortem toxicology reports. SUDORS data allow for the analysis specifically of deaths involving fentanyl (rather than the larger category of synthetic opioids), and contain information about decedent demographics and other characteristics, as well as circumstances surrounding the overdose that might help inform prevention. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pennsylvania / 20.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren A. Eberly, MD, MPH Clinical Fellow, Cardiovascular Medicine Perelman School of Medicine Cardiovascular Division, Perelman School of Medicine Center for Cardiovascular Outcomes, Quality, and Evaluative Research, Cardiovascular Center for Health Equity and Social Justice, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Racial inequities are pervasive in our country, and cardiovascular therapeutics with proven benefit have been shown to be underutilized among Black and Latinx patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), a recommended treatment option for glycemic control in patients with diabetes, have recently emerged as a cardioprotective therapy as multiple large randomized clinical trials have shown they prevent cardiovascular events among patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), particularly patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Given this, they are now recommended therapy for patients with diabetes and established or high risk of ASCVD. Given the known inequitable utilization of other therapies, along with the known higher burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease among Black patients, the aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of GLP-1 RA as well as for inequities in utilization. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, HPV / 17.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashish A. Deshmukh, PhD, MPH Associate Professor, Management, Policy & Community Health Associate Director, Center for Health Services Research Co-director, Clinical Analytics and Decision Science Lab UTHealth School of Public Health Houston, TX 77030 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Oropharyngeal cancer is the most common cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States (US). We know from previous studies that oropharyngeal cancer to be one of the fastest rising cancers in the US. However, trends (i.e., extent of change) in incidence rates among men and women in all 50 US states and trends according to tumor diagnostic characteristics (i.e., stage, size) have not been comprehensively studied. In addition, no prior study evaluated contemporary trends in oropharyngeal cancer mortality (death) rates in the US. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of oropharyngeal cancer incidence and mortality (according to age, stage, tumor size, and state of residence) in all 50 states and DC. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jiawen Liu, PhD student Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Washington  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As previous literature has documented, racial/ethnic minority populations and lower-income populations in the US often experience higher-than-average burdens of air pollution and its associated health impacts. The disparities vary by pollutant, location, and time. In 2014, Clark et al. found higher average NO2 exposure for nonwhites than for whites and for below-poverty-level than for above-poverty-level. Clark et al. (2017) expanded research for NO2 exposure by race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status to 2000 and 2010 and found that absolute racial-ethnic disparities decreased over time while relative racial-ethnic disparities persisted.  (more…)
Author Interviews / 16.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Ooi Eng Eong Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases Duke-NUS Medical School Professor, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health National University of Singapore Co-director, Viral Research And Experimental Medicine Centre MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The emergence of Zika virus as a cause of fetal developmental disorder, or congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), mirrors the impact of congenital rubella syndrome on public health. Congenital rubella syndrome was controlled through the development of a live attenuated rubella virus vaccine that, when given to young children, elicited long-lasting immunity that protected against rubella well into adulthood. Indeed, live viral vaccines cause subclinical infection to elicit immunity that approaches those that develop following wild-type viral infection. However, the boundary between attenuated and virulent Zika virus has not been clearly defined, making development of any live attenuated Zika virus vaccine risky. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Kidney Disease, Vaccine Studies / 16.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shuchi Anand, MD MS (she/her) Assistant Professor in Medicine Director, Center for Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease Stanford University School of Medicine  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: A majority of  people on dialysis who completed vaccination as of September 2021 have had a decline in antibody response to levels that would render them vulnerable to infection. Antibody response immediately after vaccination and circulating antibody response is strongly associated with risk for breakthrough after the initial vaccination series. (more…)