Author Interviews, Lifestyle & Health, Mental Health Research, Opiods, University of Pennsylvania / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50259" align="alignleft" width="145"]Samuel Preston, Ph.D. Professor of Sociology University of Pennsylvania  Dr. Preston[/caption] Samuel Preston, Ph.D. Professor of Sociology University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Life expectancy at birth in the United States is low by international standards and has been declining in recent years. Our study aimed to identify how these trends differed by age, sex, cause of death, metropolitan status, and region. We found that, over the period 2009-11 to 2014-16, mortality rose at ages 25-44 in large metropolitan areas and their suburbs as well as in smaller metropolitan areas and non-metropolitan areas. Mortality at ages 45-64 also rose in all of these areas except large metropolitan areas. These were the ages responsible for declining life expectancy. Changes in life expectancy were particularly adverse for non-metropolitan areas and for women. The metropolitan distinctions in mortality changes were similar from region to region. The cause of death contributing most strongly to mortality declines was drug overdose for males and mental and nervous system disorders for women.
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Social Issues / 12.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_38187" align="alignleft" width="111"]Francesco Acciai PhD Postdoctoral Research Associate Food Policy and Environmental Research Group School of Nutrition and Health Promotion University of Arizona Dr. Acciai[/caption] Francesco Acciai PhD Postdoctoral Research Associate Food Policy and Environmental Research Group School of Nutrition and Health Promotion Arizona State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In 2015 life expectancy at birth (e0) in the United States was lower than it was in 2014. In the previous 30 years, a reduction in life expectancy at the national level had occurred only one time, in 1993, during the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The decrease in life expectancy observed in 2015 is particularly worrisome because it was not generated by an anomalous spike in a specific cause of death (like HIV/AIDS in 1993). Instead, age-adjusted death rates increased for 8 of the 10 leading causes of death—heart disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, stroke, Alzheimer's, diabetes, kidney disease, and suicide, according to the CDC.
Author Interviews, CDC, JAMA, Opiods / 19.09.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Deborah Dowell, MD MPH Senior Medical Advisor Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Increases in U.S. life expectancy at birth have leveled off from an average of 0.20 years gained per year from 1970 to 2000 to 0.15 years gained per year from 2000 to 2014. U.S. life expectancy decreased from 2014 to 2015 and is now lower than in most high-income countries, with this gap projected to increase. Drug poisoning (overdose) death rates more than doubled in the United States from 2000-2015; those involving opioids more than tripled. Increases in poisoning have been reported to have reduced life expectancy for non-Hispanic white Americans from 2000-2014. Specific contributions of drug, opioid, and alcohol poisoning to changes in U.S. life expectancy since 2000 were unknown.
Aging, Author Interviews / 08.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Benedict Truman Associate Director for Science CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Truman: In 2008, healthy life expectancy, which isthe number of years a person is expected to live in good or better health after a particular age, varied by sex, race/ethnicity and geographical regions in the United States. In each of four U.S. census regions, females were expected to live longer and healthier lives than males; non-Hispanic whites were expected to live shorter but healthier lives than Hispanics; and non-Hispanic whites were expected to live longer and healthier lives than non-Hispanic blacks.
Author Interviews, Johns Hopkins / 23.07.2014

Eva DuGoff, PhD, MPP Graduate Student Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eva DuGoff, PhD, MPP Graduate Student Department of Health Policy and Management Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. DuGoff: In this study we investigate average life expectancy in older adults living with one to 10 or more different chronic conditions. Our main finding is that life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic condition.
Author Interviews / 28.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gopal K. Singh, Ph.D., M.S., M.Sc. Senior Epidemiologist/Health Care Administrator Office of Epidemiology and Research Division of Epidemiology HRSA/ Maternal and Child Health Bureau U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Rockville, MD 20857, USA and Mohammad Siahpush, PhD Professor, Department of Health Promotion, Social & Behavioral Health University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: There are significant disparities in life expectancy between rural and urban areas of the United States – and these disparities have widened over the past 4 decades. In 1969, life expectancy was 0.4 years longer in urban than in rural areas (70.9 vs. 70.5 years). In 2009, the life expectancy difference between urban and rural areas increased to 2.0 years (78.8 vs. 76.8 years). Much of the disparity appears to have increased since 1990. Life expectancy has increased more rapidly in urban than in rural areas, which has contributed to the widening gap in life expectancy. Life expectancy is lower in more rural areas. In 2005-2009, life expectancy was 79.1 years in large metro areas, 77.8 in small metro areas, 76.9 years in small-urban towns, and 76.7 years in rural areas. So, the difference in life expectancy between the most-urban and most-rural was 2.4 years.
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Medicare, Outcomes & Safety / 23.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alai Tan, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Dept. of Preventive Medicine & Community Health Sr. Biostatistician, Sealy Center on Aging Univerisity of Texas Medical Branch 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX  77555-0177 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tan: The study developed and validated sex-specific Cox proportional-hazards models with predictors of age and comorbidities to predict patient life expectancy using Medicare claims data. The predictive model was well-calibrated and showed good predictive discrimination for risk of mortality between 5 and 10 years.