Does Brand Name 17P Work Better Than Generic In Reducing Preterm Births?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Andrew L. Beam, PhD Instructor in Biomedical Informatics Department of Biomedical Informatics Harvard Medical School

Dr. Beam

Andrew L. Beam, PhD
Instructor in Biomedical Informatics
Department of Biomedical Informatics
Harvard Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study is one piece of a larger story regarding the use of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) to treat recurrent preterm birth. This drug was originally only available in a compounded form, but since receiving an orphan drug designation in 2011, a branded and manufactured form was marketed under the name “Makena”. This branded form was then sold for a much higher price than the compounded version, but a study that provided concrete data on pricing and outcomes had not been done.
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Birth Outcomes Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hazel B. Nichols, PhD, UNC, assistant professor Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center member UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health.

Dr. Nichols

Hazel B. Nichols, PhD, UNC
Assistant professor
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center member
UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Each year more than 45,000 adolescent and young adult women (AYA, ages 15-39 years) are diagnosed with cancer in the United States. While many of these women may wish to have children in the years following diagnosis, there is currently little information available to address their concerns about the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on future pregnancy.

We identified >2,500 women who had a child after their cancer diagnosis using data from the North Carolina Central Cancer registry and statewide birth certificate files. We investigated whether adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight, were more common among AYA cancer survivors compared to women without cancer. We also looked at infant Apgar scores, which measure newborn health, and a calculation called small-for-gestational age, which can indicate restricted growth during pregnancy.

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Air Pollution Linked To Millions of Preterm Births

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Chris Malley PhD The Stockholm Environment Institute University of York

Dr. Chris Malley

Chris Malley PhD
The Stockholm Environment Institute
University of York

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: When a baby is born preterm (at less than 37 weeks of gestation, an indicator of premature birth), there is an increased risk of infant death, or long-term physical and neurological disabilities. For example, 965,000 infant deaths in 2013 (35% of all neonatal deaths) have been estimated to be due to preterm birth complications. In 2010, an estimated 14.9 million births were preterm – about 4–5% of the total in some European countries, but up to 15–18% in some African and South Asian countries. The human and economic costs are enormous.

There are many risk factors for preterm birth – from the mother’s age, to illness, to poverty and other social factors. Recent research has suggested that exposure to air pollution could also be a risk factor. Our study quantifies for the first time the global impact of pregnant women’s exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) by combining data about air pollution in different countries with knowledge about how exposure to different levels of air pollution is associated with preterm birth rates.

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Preterm Birth Increases in the U.S. for the First Time in Eight Years

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer Howse, Ph.D. President of the March of Dimes Foundation

Dr. Jennifer Howse

Jennifer Howse, Ph.D.
President of the March of Dimes Foundation

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card was created in 2007 to raise awareness of the unfair burden of preterm birth in certain communities and geographic areas in the United States. We also want to monitor progress, or lack of it, towards our goal to lower the national preterm birth rate to 8.1 percent by 2020 and to 5.5 percent by 2030. This year’s Report Card finds that, for the first time in eight years, the nation’s preterm birth rate did not decline – it worsened from 9.57 percent of all live births in 2014 to 9.63 percent in 2015, earning the nation a “C” grade. Seven states — Arkansas, Connecticut, Idaho, Nebraska, New Mexico, Utah, and Wisconsin – received worse grades this year than last year on the Report Card. The March of Dimes strives for a world where every baby has a fair chance for a full-term pregnancy and a healthy birth, yet this is not the reality for many mothers and babies. The 2016 Report Card shows that babies in this country have different chances of surviving and thriving simply based on the circumstances of their birth.

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All Preterm Children At Risk of Emotional and Behavioral Problems Upon School Entry

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jorijn Hornman, BSc (MD PhD student)
Departments of Health Sciences
University Medical Center Groningen
University of Groningen, Netherlands

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Preterm children are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to full-term children. Prevalences vary with degree of prematurity and assessment age. Unknown was whether stability of these problems upon school entry differs between preterm and full-term children.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We found that preterm children had higher rates than full-term children of persistent (7.2% versus 3.6%), emerging (4.3% versus 2.3%), and resolving (7.5% versus 3.6%) emotional and behavioral problems. Early preterm children –born at <32 weeks gestation- had the highest rates of persistent (8.2%) and emerging (5.2%) problems, and moderately preterm children –born at 32-35 weeks gestation- the highest rates of resolving problems (8.7%).

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Very Early Preterm Births More Common In Black Mothers

More on Racial Disparities in Health Care on MedicalResearch.com

Emily A. DeFranco, D.O., M.S. Associate Professor Maternal-Fetal Medicine Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical Sciences Building, Room 4553B Cincinnati, OH

Dr. Emily DeFranco

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Emily A. DeFranco, D.O., M.S
.
Associate Professor Maternal-Fetal Medicine
Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Medical Sciences Building, Room 4553B
Cincinnati, OH

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. DeFranco: The Infant Mortality Rate in the state of Ohio is higher than many other states.  Additionally, there is a large disparity in the IMR with black infants impacted to a higher degree compared to white infants. For this reason, we are particularly interested in identifying factors that contribute to this disparity in order to identify potential areas where public health efforts can be focused.

We know that preterm birth is a major contributor to infant mortality, and that all babies born alive prior to 23 weeks of gestational age, i.e. “previable”, die after birth and contribute to the infant mortality rate.  In this study, we wanted to assess whether black women are more likely to have early preterm births at less than 23 weeks, and if so whether that may be part of the explanation of why black mothers are at higher risk of experiencing an infant mortality.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. DeFranco: In this study, we found that black mothers were more likely to deliver than white mothers  at very early preterm gestational ages, less than 23 weeks.  We also found that the earlier the delivery, the larger the disparity with black mothers being at higher risk for the earliest deliveries compared to white mothers.  From this data, we estimated that in Ohio, 44% of all infant mortality in black mothers is caused by previable preterm birth, whereas only 28% of infant mortality in white mothers is attributed to the same cause.  We concluded that very early preterm birth in black mothers is a large contributor to the racial disparity observed in the infant mortality dilemma here in Ohio.

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High Preterm Birth Rates Persist In Upwardly Mobile African American Women

Paula Braveman, MD, MPH Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health Professor, Family and Community Medicine University of California San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94118MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Paula Braveman, MD, MPH
Director, Center on Social Disparities in Health
Professor, Family and Community Medicine
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, CA 94118

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Braveman: There were a couple of striking findings from this study of preterm birth (PTB) among non-Latino White and Black women born in the U.S..

First, we found that women who were poor or socioeconomically disadvantaged in other ways (who had not or whose parents had not graduated from high school or who lived in neighborhoods (census tracts) with highly concentrated (25% or more of residents) poverty) had similarly high preterm birth rates.  In addition, we found that while preterm birth rates among White women consistently improved as their socioeconomic status (SES) improved, higher-SES Black women generally did no better –and sometimes did worse—than lower-SES Black women.

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Preterm Infants and Effects of Antenatal Steroids

Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230 Toronto, ON M4N 3M5MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Elizabeth V. Asztalos, MD, M.Sc., FRCPC
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
2075 Bayview Ave., Room M4 230
Toronto, ON M4N 3M5

 

MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: This study was focused to see if there were differences in the main neurodevelopmental outcomes of children whose mothers had participated in the original MACS trial. We found that there were no differences in the main outcomes of the trial as it related to the aspects of death and/or developmental. Continue reading