Author Interviews, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, OBGYNE, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 20.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison Gemmill, PhD Assistant Professor Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: A growing body of evidence suggests that the circumstances surrounding the 2016 presidential election may have had a uniquely negative impact on the health of U.S. Latino population. Few studies, however, have evaluated the population health implications of the election for Latina mothers and their children. We used national data and methods that control for temporal patterning to test the hypothesis that preterm birth rose above otherwise expected levels among Latina women in the U.S. following the election of Donald Trump. We find that the number of preterm births among Latina women increased above expected levels following the election. Specifically, we find 3.5 percent more preterm births among Latinas than projected for nine months following election. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marina Mendonca PhD RECAP project (Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm) Department of Psychology University of Warwick, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous research on the social lives of adults born preterm (under 37 weeks gestation) was inconsistent. This meta-analysis brought together data from up to 4.4m adult participants and has shown that those who were born preterm are less likely to form romantic relationships, to have had sexual relations or experience parenthood than full terms. For example, those born preterm were 28% less likely to form romantic relationships and 22% less likely to become parents, when compared to those born full term. When looking at sexual relations, preterm born adults were 2.3 times (or 57%) less likely to ever have a sexual partner. These associations were found for both men and women, and were stronger the lower gestational age. This means that the chances of finding a romantic partner or having children were lower for those born very (<28 weeks gestation) or extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation), with the extremely pre-term born adults being for example 3.2 times (78%) less likely to ever having had sexual relations when compared to their full term peers. Despite having fewer relationships, we found that when adults who were born preterm had friends or a partner, the quality of these relationships was at least as good as those born full term. (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, MD, MSc Ellen Jacobson Levine and Eugene Jacobson Professor of Women's Health in Obstetrics and Gynecology Director, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship Program Co-Director, CUMC Preterm Birth Prevention Center Columbia University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2016 our group published the findings of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids (ALPS) trial in the NEJM. We found that administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk for delivery from 34-36 weeks decreased breathing problems in their neonates. This treatment had been traditionally only given at less than 34 weeks. The current paper is a cost analysis of that trial. We found that the treatment was also cost effective. From a cost perspective treatment was both low cost and highly effective (the options are low cost, low effect/low cost/high effect, high cost/low effect, high cost/high effect). (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 21.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with "Pregnancy 1" by operalynn is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Josephine Funck Bilsteen, MSc Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre, Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background of this study is that there is increasing recognition of the longer-term health and social outcomes associated with preterm birth such as independent living, quality of life, self-perception and socioeconomic achievements. However, much less is known about differences in education and income among adults born at different gestational weeks in the term period. In this study shorter gestational duration, even within the term range, was associated with lower chances of having a high personal income and having completed a secondary or tertiary education at age 28 years. This is the first study to show that adults born at 37 and 38 completed weeks of gestation had slightly lower chances of having a high income and educational level than adults born at 40 completed weeks of gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Depression, Pediatrics / 11.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Karen Fratantoni, M.D., M.P.H. Pediatrician and lead study author Children’s National Health System MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We looked at the prevalence of depressive symptoms at NICU discharge and at six months after discharge among 125 parents randomized to the control group of a larger PCORI-funded trial of peer-to-peer support after NICU discharge. Determining factors associated with parental depressive symptoms at NICU discharge may help to identify at-risk parents who could benefit from mental health support. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Pediatrics / 21.12.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Premature baby” by Elin B is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Suvi Alenius, MD National Institute for Health and Welfare Helsinki and Oulu, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Parents of very or extremely low birth weight infants are less likely to have subsequent children after preterm birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon extends over the whole range of prematurity. We now show that parents of preterm-born infants (gestational age less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) have fewer subsequent children than do parents of term born infants. This is not limited to the extreme group of parents of children born very preterm, but is even seen within the large groups of parents of infants born less preterm. (more…)
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Social Issues / 20.10.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Buher Kane PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology University of California, Irvine 92697-510 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: It’s not uncommon for new parents to relocate in search of neighborhoods with better schools, safer streets and healthier, more kid-friendly activities. But our new study found that living in such neighborhoods before a baby is born protects against the risks of poor birth outcomes. Published online this month in SSM – Population Health, the research shows that having highly educated, wealthy neighbors reduces an expectant mother’s risk of delivering a low-weight or preterm baby – health markers that can be associated with neurodevelopmental problems, language disorders, learning disabilities and poor health later in life. Our study is the first to look at how both the level of affluence and disadvantage — two sociologically distinct attributes of neighborhoods — affect newborn health; past studies have only explored the impact of neighborhood disadvantage. Neighborhood disadvantage signals factors such as poverty, unemployment, or underemployment. On the other hand, neighborhood affluence is thought to signal the presence of locally-based community organizations that can meet the needs of all residents – health-related and otherwise – regardless of one’s own socioeconomic resources. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pediatrics, Pulmonary Disease / 15.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristin N. Ferguson, BSc The Royal Women’s Hospital and Deakin University Melbourne, Victoria, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Weaning preterm infants from mechanical ventilation, thereby minimising the risks of having an endotracheal tube in situ which may further damage their fragile lungs, is something all neonatal clinicians are keen to do. We provide clinicians with a straightforward list of safe and effective strategies to help them in this task, as well as pointing out some treatments to either avoid or use with caution. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, Pediatrics / 08.05.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mr. Matthew A. Rysavy, B.S and Edward Bell, MD Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Iowa City, IA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We were interested in understanding reasons for differences in outcomes among extremely preterm infants among hospitals. This has been shown in many studies. We found that differences among hospitals in whether treatment was initiated for infants born at very early gestations (22, 23, 24 weeks' gestation) accounted for a lot of the variation in hospital-level outcomes at these gestational ages. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 03.10.2014

Sara Sammallahti, MA Institute of Behavioral Sciences University of Helsinki, Finland. MedicalResearch.com Interview, Sara Sammallahti, MA Institute of Behavioral Sciences University of Helsinki, Finland.   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Not only did we find that faster growth right after preterm birth is associated with better neurocognitive abilities - we also showed that these effects persist into adulthood, that they are seen across a wide spectrum of abilities, and that head growth very early on seems especially relevant in predicting long-term outcomes. These associations were found when we examined 103 young adults who were born prematurely and with very low birth weight (under 1500 grams). (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE / 12.03.2014

Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student School of Food Science and Nutrition University of Leeds, Leeds, UK MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student School of Food Science and Nutrition University of Leeds, Leeds, UK   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study, there was an association between the mother drinking alcohol during early pregnancy and being born preterm or small for gestational age. Babies of women who drank more than 2 units of alcohol per week in the first trimester were more likely to be born preterm, small for gestational age and with lower birth weight compared to non-drinkers, even after adjusting for a range of confounders including cotinine levels as a biomarker for smoking status. The association with preterm birth was present even in those mothers who reported drinking less than 2 units/week. (more…)