Less Time in the Womb Linked to Less Education and Income in Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with
"Pregnancy 1" by operalynn is licensed under CC BY 2.0Josephine Funck Bilsteen, MSc
Department of Pediatrics, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre,
Section of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health
University of Copenhagen
Copenhagen, Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The background of this study is that there is increasing recognition of the longer-term health and social outcomes associated with preterm birth such as independent living, quality of life, self-perception and socioeconomic achievements. However, much less is known about differences in education and income among adults born at different gestational weeks in the term period.

In this study shorter gestational duration, even within the term range, was associated with lower chances of having a high personal income and having completed a secondary or tertiary education at age 28 years. This is the first study to show that adults born at 37 and 38 completed weeks of gestation had slightly lower chances of having a high income and educational level than adults born at 40 completed weeks of gestation.  Continue reading

NICU Babies’ Parents at Risk For Depression

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Karen Fratantoni, M.D., M.P.H. Pediatrician and lead study author Children’s National Health System

Dr. Fratantoni

Karen Fratantoni, M.D., M.P.H.
Pediatrician and lead study author
Children’s National Health System

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We looked at the prevalence of depressive symptoms at NICU discharge and at six months after discharge among 125 parents randomized to the control group of a larger PCORI-funded trial of peer-to-peer support after NICU discharge. Determining factors associated with parental depressive symptoms at NICU discharge may help to identify at-risk parents who could benefit from mental health support.

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Premature Babies Less Likely To Have Siblings

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Premature baby” by Elin B is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Suvi Alenius, MD
National Institute for Health and Welfare
Helsinki and Oulu, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Parents of very or extremely low birth weight infants are less likely to have subsequent children after preterm birth. We assessed whether this phenomenon extends over the whole range of prematurity.

We now show that parents of preterm-born infants (gestational age less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) have fewer subsequent children than do parents of term born infants. This is not limited to the extreme group of parents of children born very preterm, but is even seen within the large groups of parents of infants born less preterm.

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Having Highly Educated, Wealthy Neighbors Reduces Expectant Mother’s Chance of Having Preterm or Low Weight Baby

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer Buher Kane PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology University of California, Irvine 92697-510 

Dr. Buher-Kane

Jennifer Buher Kane PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology
University of California, Irvine 92697-510 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It’s not uncommon for new parents to relocate in search of neighborhoods with better schools, safer streets and healthier, more kid-friendly activities. But our new study found that living in such neighborhoods before a baby is born protects against the risks of poor birth outcomes.

Published online this month in SSM – Population Health, the research shows that having highly educated, wealthy neighbors reduces an expectant mother’s risk of delivering a low-weight or preterm baby – health markers that can be associated with neurodevelopmental problems, language disorders, learning disabilities and poor health later in life.

Our study is the first to look at how both the level of affluence and disadvantage — two sociologically distinct attributes of neighborhoods — affect newborn health; past studies have only explored the impact of neighborhood disadvantage. Neighborhood disadvantage signals factors such as poverty, unemployment, or underemployment. On the other hand, neighborhood affluence is thought to signal the presence of locally-based community organizations that can meet the needs of all residents – health-related and otherwise – regardless of one’s own socioeconomic resources.

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Interventions to Improve Rate of Successful Extubation in Preterm Infants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kristin N. Ferguson, BSc

The Royal Women’s Hospital and
Deakin University
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Weaning preterm infants from mechanical ventilation, thereby minimising the risks of having an endotracheal tube in situ which may further damage their fragile lungs, is something all neonatal clinicians are keen to do. We provide clinicians with a straightforward list of safe and effective strategies to help them in this task, as well as pointing out some treatments to either avoid or use with caution.

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Hospitals Vary In Treatment Of 22-24 Week Preterm Infants

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mr. Matthew A. Rysavy, B.S and Edward Bell, MD
Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We were interested in understanding reasons for differences in outcomes among extremely preterm infants among hospitals.  This has been shown in many studies.  We found that differences among hospitals in whether treatment was initiated for infants born at very early gestations (22, 23, 24 weeks’ gestation) accounted for a lot of the variation in hospital-level outcomes at these gestational ages.
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Fast Growth After Preterm Birth Linked To Persistent Neurocognitive Ability

Sara Sammallahti, MA Institute of Behavioral Sciences University of Helsinki, Finland.
MedicalResearch.com Interview,

Sara Sammallahti, MA
Institute of Behavioral Sciences
University of Helsinki, Finland.

 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Not only did we find that faster growth right after preterm birth is
associated with better neurocognitive abilities – we also showed that
these effects persist into adulthood, that they are seen across a wide
spectrum of abilities, and that head growth very early on seems
especially relevant in predicting long-term outcomes. These
associations were found when we examined 103 young adults who were
born prematurely and with very low birth weight (under 1500 grams).
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Alcohol in Early Pregnancy Associated with Preterm, Small Babies

Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student School of Food Science and Nutrition University of Leeds, Leeds, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Camilla Nykjaer, PhD Student
School of Food Science and Nutrition
University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

 

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: In our study, there was an association between the mother drinking alcohol during early pregnancy and being born preterm or small for gestational age. Babies of women who drank more than 2 units of alcohol per week in the first trimester were more likely to be born preterm, small for gestational age and with lower birth weight compared to non-drinkers, even after adjusting for a range of confounders including cotinine levels as a biomarker for smoking status. The association with preterm birth was present even in those mothers who reported drinking less than 2 units/week.
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