Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jiawen Liu, PhD student Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Washington  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As previous literature has documented, racial/ethnic minority populations and lower-income populations in the US often experience higher-than-average burdens of air pollution and its associated health impacts. The disparities vary by pollutant, location, and time. In 2014, Clark et al. found higher average NO2 exposure for nonwhites than for whites and for below-poverty-level than for above-poverty-level. Clark et al. (2017) expanded research for NO2 exposure by race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status to 2000 and 2010 and found that absolute racial-ethnic disparities decreased over time while relative racial-ethnic disparities persisted.  (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Bayer, Cancer Research, Pediatrics / 03.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Douglas S. Hawkins, M.D. Hematology/Oncology Division Chief and Professor Pediatrics at Seattle Children's Hospital University of Washington School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: TRK fusion cancer is caused by a rare genomic alteration called a neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusion. Larotrectinib is a central nervous system (CNS) active, oral and highly selective TRK inhibitor used for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with solid tumors that have a rare genomic alteration called an NTRK gene fusion. Larotrectinib was approved at the end of 2018 in the U.S. under the brand name VITRAKVI®, with European and worldwide regulatory submissions underway. At ASCO 2019, we will be presenting results from a new analysis specifically looking at the efficacy and safety of larotrectinib in pediatric patients (n=34) included in the expanded dataset from both adults and children across 24 tumor types, which was presented first at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2019 Annual Meeting.  (more…)
Author Interviews, End of Life Care, JAMA, Kidney Disease / 22.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan P. Y. Wong, MD MS Assistant Professor Division of Nephrology University of Washington VA Puget Sound Health Care System  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Patients who reach the advanced stages of kidney disease  must often face the difficult decision of whether to undergo maintenance dialysis. While maintenance dialysis is a remarkable therapy that has extended the lives of many patients, its benefits do not necessarily accrue in older patients with significant comorbidity and functional impairment. It is also a very demanding form of therapy that comes with its own burdens and complications. Based on our prior research in the national VA health system, 1 in 7 patients with very advanced kidney disease (or their decision makers) do not pursue dialysis. We wanted to understand how these decisions to forgo initiation of maintenance dialysis unfold. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Genetic Research, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 17.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nicole Karcher, PhD Post-doctoral scholar with the NIMH Training in Clinical Sciences fellowship Department of Psychiatry Washington University School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: For over fifteen years, researchers have debated the role that cannabis use plays in the development of both psychotic disorders as well as subthreshold psychotic symptoms, such as psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). There is still a lack of consensus regarding the nature of the association between cannabis use and psychosis risk, with some research finding evidence for genetic overlap, while other research finds evidence for potentially causal pathways. The current study examined data from twins and siblings from two different samples, the U.S.-based Human Connectome Project and the Australian Twin Registry, with a total of 4,674 participants. Overall, psychotic-like experiences were associated with three separate cannabis use variables [frequent (≥100 times) use, a Cannabis Use Disorder diagnosis, and current cannabis use]. Furthermore, the current research found evidence for both shared genetic and individual-specific contributions to the association between PLEs and these three cannabis use variables. More specifically, while the association between cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences was largely attributable to shared genetic factors, cannabis users were more likely to endorse PLEs in comparison to the relative who used cannabis less.  (more…)