Author Interviews, Cancer, Cancer Research, Supplements / 30.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47225" align="alignleft" width="166"]Dr. Scott Litofsky, MD  Division of Neurological Surgery University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine Columbia, MO 65212  Dr. Litofsky[/caption] Dr. Scott Litofsky, MD Division of Neurological Surgery University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine Columbia, MO 65212  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many patients take over-the-counter medications to held their cancers. Some of these remedies may be helpful; others are potentially harmful. Anti-oxidant medications are frequently selected by patients as they are inexpensive and available. We were approached by a high school student, Macy Williams (one of the authors) to do some research in our laboratory when she won a research scholarship (the 2016 Emperor Science Award) from Stand Up to Cancer. She worked with us several times per week doing experiments during her senior year of high school. When she graduated, we continued the work that she started. We studied effects of Vitamin D3, Melatonin, and alpha-Lipoic Acid on glioblastoma cells, a highly malignant brain tumor. We included experiments of these agents alone and in combination with Temozolomide, a chemotherapy agent used as standard of care in glioblastoma. The work was done in cultured cells, measuring growth and survival of cells. We used concentrations that could be achieved by oral intake of the drugs. We found that antioxidant medications, particularly alpha Lipoic Acid, had synergistic effects with Temozolomide – that is Temozolomide impair glioblastoma cell growth and survival better when combined with an antioxidant. The mechanism of action may be through reactive oxygen species. 
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pulmonary Disease, Supplements / 18.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43251" align="alignleft" width="144"]Scott D Sagel MD PhD Professor of Pediatrics University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado Dr. Sagel[/caption] Scott D Sagel MD PhD Professor of Pediatrics University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Inflammation is an important feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and contributes to lung damage and lung function decline in CF. We need safe and effective anti-inflammatory treatments in CF. Anti-oxidant therapy has been an area of promise, but with mixed results in CF. This clinical trial, conducted at 15 CF centers affiliated with the cystic fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network, enrolled 73 patients who were 10 years and older (average age 22 years), with pancreatic insufficiency, which causes malabsorption of antioxidants. Subjects were randomized to either a multivitamin containing multiple antioxidants including carotenoids such as beta(β)-carotene, tocopherols (vitamin E), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and selenium or to a control multivitamin without antioxidant enrichment. The antioxidants used in the study were delivered in a capsule specifically designed for individuals with difficulties absorbing fats and proteins, including those with cystic fibrosis.
ALS, Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Columbia, Inflammation, JAMA, Nutrition / 26.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29061" align="alignleft" width="165"]Dr. Jeri Nieves PhD Director of bone density testing New York's Helen Hayes Hospital Dr. Jeri Nieves[/caption] Dr. Jeri Nieves PhD Director of bone density testing New York's Helen Hayes Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating severe neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle atrophy, paralyses, and eventual respiratory failure. Our objective was to evaluate the associations between nutrition and severity of ALS around the time of diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from a multicenter cohort of 302 patients with ALS. We assessed nutrient intake using a modified Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. The outcomes were respiratory function (measured using percentage forced vital capacity; FVC%) and functional performance measured by ALS Functional Rating Scale–Revised (ALSFRS-R), both considered important indicators of the severity of ALS. Results of the regression analysis were that higher intakes of antioxidants and carotenes from vegetable intake were associated with higher ALSFRS-R scores or better %FVC. We used a novel analysis to evaluate the diet as a whole and found that higher intakes of antioxidants, fiber from grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, fish, and poultry were all associated with higher function in patients with ALS. However, milk and lunch meats were associated with lower measures of function. These consistent results from two different statistical analyses indicate that diet may help minimize the severity of ALS. Perhaps these findings point to the role of oxidative stress in ALS severity. In summary, increased consumption of antioxidant nutrients, foods high in carotenoids and fiber, vegetables and fruits, poultry and fish are associated with better function around the time of ALS diagnosis.
Author Interviews, Lung Cancer, Melanoma / 12.10.2015

[caption id="attachment_18318" align="alignleft" width="207"]Prof. Martin O. Bergo Sahlgrenska Cancer Center Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine Institute of Medicine University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden Prof. Martin O. Bergo[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Martin O. Bergo Sahlgrenska Cancer Center Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine Institute of Medicine University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Bergo: Dietary antioxidants and antioxidant supplements can protect cells and people from harmful effects of free radicals. The free radicals have the potential, over time, to cause cancer. But why is this research field so enormously fraught with controversy, and why have clinical trials with antioxidants not established this potential anti-cancer effects? We believe it is because the question of “whether antioxidants protect against cancer” should be divided into two separate questions: 1. Do antioxidants protect a healthy cell or a tumor-free person from cancer in the future.?and 2. What is the impact of antioxidant supplementation on an already established tumor? Focusing specifically on the second question, we showed previously that the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E markedly increase lung cancer progression in mice and cause human lung cancer cells to proliferate faster. The mechanism for this effect was directly linked to the ability of the antioxidants to scavenge free-radicals, which is why it is likely that other antioxidants, synthetic or natural, could have a similar effect. In the current study, we argued that it would be important to test this in malignant melanoma for three reasons. First, melanoma cancer cells are known to be sensitive to changes in free radicals. Second, melanoma is the cancer that increases most in incidence and lethality in the western world. And third, primary melanomas may be exposed to antioxidants from both the diet and from skin lotions and sun creams. We found that supplementing the diet of mice with acetylcysteine has no impact on the primary tumors on the skin but doubles the rate of metastasis – i.e. the ability of the tumor cells to spread in the body. We found similar results with human malignant melanoma cells in culture: antioxidants (acetylcysteine and vitamin E) increased their ability to migrate and invade surrounding tissue. Thus, all in all, we have found that antioxidants can worsen cancer in two different ways, one in the lung, and another in the skin.    
Aging, Author Interviews, Inflammation / 15.02.2015

Dr. Jeremy Van Raamsdonk Laboratory of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease (LAND), Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Department of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, Department of Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jeremy Van Raamsdon PhD Laboratory of Aging and Neurodk egenerative Disease (LAND), Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Deptment of Translational Science and Molecular Medicine, Department of Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan,Dep. of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Van Raamsdonk : The free radical theory of aging is one of the most widely accepted theories of aging. This theory suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are also known as free radicals, cause a type of damage, called oxidative damage, that accumulates over time to cause the functional decline associated with aging. ROS have also been proposed to play a role in many diseases including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. However, recent work has demonstrated that ROS are not necessarily detrimental. ROS perform functional roles in the body and thus it is possible to have too little ROS. We previously showed that increasing ROS by decreasing the levels of an antioxidant enzyme called superoxide dismutase (SOD) does not decrease lifespan even when all of the SOD genes are removed. We also showed that in some cases treatment with an antioxidant, such as Vitamin C, can lead to decreased lifespan. This finding is consistent with human clinical trials in which it has not been possible to show a beneficial effect of antioxidants on longevity. In this paper we further examine the relationship between ROS and aging. We use a simple genetic model organism, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been used extensively in aging research, to determine how location impacts the effect of ROS on lifespan. We used a genetic approach to increase the levels of ROS in different parts of a cell and found that location is crucial in determining the effect of ROS on lifespan. Mildly increasing the levels of ROS in the mitochondria increases lifespan, while increasing ROS in the cytoplasm has the opposite effect of decreasing lifespan.
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Macular Degeneration, Ophthalmology / 20.01.2014

Jie Jin Wang MMed (Clin Epi) MAppStat PhD Professor Australian NHMRC Senior Research Fellow (Level B) Centre for Vision Research Westmead Millennium Institute University of Sydney C24 Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145 AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jie Jin Wang MMed (Clin Epi) MAppStat PhD Professor Australian NHMRC Senior Research Fellow (Level B) Centre for Vision Research Westmead Millennium Institute University of Sydney C24 Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145 Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We documented a consistent association between high dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin (LZ) and a reduced long-term risk of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in persons who carry ≥2 risk alleles of either or both the complement factor H (CFH-rs1061170) and/or the age-related maculopathy susceptibility gene 2 (ARMS2-rs10490924) in two older population-based cohorts.
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, Nutrition, University of Michigan / 12.11.2013

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2013/11/06/ajcn.113.068437.abstractMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sung Kyun Park, Sc.D., M.P.H Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Assistant Professor, Environmental Health Sciences Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences University of Michigan School of Public Health Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?
 Answer: This study reports that persons who eat more dietary antioxidants (beta carotene and vitamin C) or magnesium have a lower risk of hearing loss. This finding was seen in the levels currently observed in the general US population and independent of demographic and socioeconomic factors, noise exposures from workplaces, recreations or firearms, and other potential risk factors.
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 01.11.2013

Kumar Sharma, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Institute of Metabolomic Medicine Director, Center for Renal Translational Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0711MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kumar Sharma, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Institute of Metabolomic Medicine Director, Center for Renal Translational Medicine University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093-0711 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sharma: Main findings are that diabetes is associated with reduced superoxide production in the kidney and heart and that stimulation of superoxide production with AMPK led to improvement in organ function.