Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Duke, OBGYNE, Opiods, Pain Research, Surgical Research / 29.05.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ashraf Habib, MDChief of the Division of Women’s Anesthesia and Professor of AnesthesiologyDuke University Ashraf Habib, MD Chief of the Division of Women’s Anesthesia Professor of Anesthesiology Duke University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This was a multicenter study conducted in 13 clinical sites in the United States enrolling patients undergoing elective Cesarean-section and receiving spinal anesthesia. 186 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive EXPAREL, a long-acting, non-opioid option to manage postsurgical pain, administered via transversus abdominis plane (TAP) field block, mixed with plain bupivacaine or TAP block with plain bupivacaine alone. A TAP block numbs the nerves that supply the abdominal wall. We presented the data at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) in Phoenix, AZ. We aimed to collect clinical evidence that a multimodal postsurgical pain regimen using a TAP block with EXPAREL (bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension) together with regularly scheduled acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could reduce opioid consumption more so than a standard multimodal pain control approach that combines TAP block with standard bupivacaine, regularly scheduled acetaminophen, and NSAIDs.
Author Interviews, CMAJ, OBGYNE / 07.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Childbirth” by DAVID Swift is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Dr. Carmen Young Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Alberta MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: For women who have had a single previous cesarean section, the optimal mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy is controversial. This is because there are risks and benefits to attempting a vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) or having an elective repeat cesarean section. Attempted VBAC is associated with a higher risk of uterine rupture and other maternal and infant complications. Repeat cesarean sections are associated with an increased risk of surgical complications and placental complications in subsequent pregnancies. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict which patients will have a successful VBAC. This study is unique in that it uses recent Canadian data, allowing assessment of the impact of contemporary obstetrical care on maternal and neonatal outcomes in Canada.
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 20.09.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_36995" align="alignleft" width="116"]Dr. Carri R. Warshak, MD Associate Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology University of  Cincinnati Dr. Warshak[/caption] Dr. Carri R. Warshak, MD Associate Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology University of  Cincinnati MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Cesarean deliveries are the most common major surgical procedure performed in the United States.  A common complication of cesarean section is wound infections that can include infections in the skin and incision site, or infections in the uterus itself after delivery.  These complications can lead to prolonged hospitalization after delivery for antibiotics and even further surgery in severe infections.  Often these wound complications lead to delayed healing, wound opening which can sometimes take several weeks to heal. Studies have demonstrated as many as 12% of women experience a surgical site infection after delivery. Obesity is a strong risk factor for increased surgical site infections.  Increasing maternal weight increases the risk of wound complications, with a two to five fold increase in risk, making surgical site infections and common and concerning complication of cesarean delivery in obese women.
AHRQ, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 20.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kamila Mistry, PhD MPH AHRQ MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although the overall cesarean section (C-section) rate in the United States has declined slightly in recent years, nearly a third of all births continue to be delivered by C-section—higher than in many other industrialized countries. A number of medical as well as nonmedical factors may contribute to high C-section rates. C-section is the most common surgical procedure performed in the United States. This operation carries additional risks compared with vaginal delivery, such as infection and postoperative pain. A C-section also may make it more difficult for the mother to establish breastfeeding and may complicate subsequent pregnancies. Consensus guidelines from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and other national efforts to improve perinatal care have shown promise in reducing nonmedically indicated C-sections. However, recent research has found wide variation in hospital C-section rates even for low-risk deliveries.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 10.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29559" align="alignleft" width="184"]Jason Bentley, MBiostat Doctoral Fellow Menzies Centre for Health Policy University of Sydney Jason Bentley[/caption] Jason Bentley, MBiostat Doctoral Fellow Menzies Centre for Health Policy University of Sydney MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Planned birth (labor induction or pre-labor caesarean section) is a decision to intervene and so determines a gestational age at birth that would have otherwise been later if pregnancy had progressed through to spontaneous labor. Significant changes in clinical practice have seen an increase in planned births before 39-40 completed week’s gestation from an increased use of primary and repeat cesarean section and a greater use of labor induction. At a population level this has resulted in a decrease in modal gestational age with planned birth accounting for almost half of births before 39-40 weeks. Clinical research has indicated that the threshold for planned birth and the gestational age for intervening has reduced. Numerous reasons have been given as justification for this including litigation, patient and provider perception of safety versus risk, reduced perinatal mortality, increased fetal monitoring, maternal age, obesity and convenience. There has also been the clinical perception that birth just before the optimal date carries little significant morbidity, with a focus on short-term risks to mother or baby only rather than longer-term outcomes. It is of paramount importance to ensure there are no unintended harms from such a significant shift in clinical practice. This study investigated whether the timing of planned birth was associated with poorer developmental outcomes at school age.
Abuse and Neglect, BMJ, Imperial College, Microbiome, OBGYNE / 23.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_21901" align="alignleft" width="214"]Dr. Aubrey Cunnington Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Clinical Senior Lecturer Imperial College, London Dr. Aubrey Cunnington[/caption] Dr. Aubrey Cunnington Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Clinical Senior Lecturer Imperial College, London Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Cunnington: We noticed that increasing numbers of women who were having Caesarean section deliveries at our hospitals were requesting for their vaginal fluid to be swabbed onto their babies after birth – a process often termed “vaginal seeding”. The idea behind this, is that it transfers all the natural bacteria (microbiota) from the mother’s vagina to the baby. We know that early on in life, babies born by Caesarean section have different bacteria living on their bodies and in their guts to those of babies born by vaginal delivery. Some people think these differences in the microbiota may be responsible for differences in long-term health, although a causal link is unproven. The hope is that vaginal seeding might reduce the risk of the baby developing some diseases like obesity and asthma in the future. Unfortunately we are a long way from having the evidence to show that this is possible, and we do not know whether vaginal seeding is really safe. Babies born by elective Caesarean section are at lower risk of transfer of some potentially harmful bacteria and viruses from the birth canal, but these harmful bacteria and viruses could be transferred to the baby on a swab and potentially cause a devastating infection. MedicalResearch.com Editor's note:  'Vaginal Seeding' is also known as "microbirthing",   
Allergies, Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 24.06.2015

[caption id="attachment_19464" align="alignleft" width="133"]Professor of Pediatrics Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood Herlev and Gentofte Hospital,  University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Prof. Bisgaard[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor of Pediatrics Hans Bisgaard, MD, DMSc Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Prof. Bisgaard: Programming of the immune response in perinatal life seems to contribute to the increased prevalence of immune-mediated diseases We hypothesized that initiation of labor could affect the developing newborn immune system. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Prof. Bisgaard: Pre-labor cesarean section is associated with a distinct and gestational age-related distribution of circulating immune cells in newborns suggesting that changes in specific immune compartments occur during the approach of labor.