Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Outcomes & Safety / 16.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Regis Goulart Rosa, MD, PhD Responsabilidade Social - PROADI Hospital Moinhos de Vento MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The debate about visiting policies in adult ICUs is of broad and current interest in critical care, with strong advocacy in favour of flexible family visitation models in order to promote patient- and family-centred care. However, the proportion of adult ICUs with unrestricted visiting hours is very low. Data from the literature show that 80% of hospitals in the United Kingdom and USA adopt restrictive ICU visiting policies. Among ICUs with restrictive visiting hours, published studies show that the daily visiting time ranges from a median of 1 hour in Italy to a mean of 4.7 hours in France. In agreement with this scenario, most adult ICUs in Brazil follow a restrictive visitation model, in which family members are allowed to visit the critically ill patient from 30 minutes to 1 hour, once or twice a day. These restrictive visitation models have been justified by the theoretical risks associated with unrestricted visiting hours, mainly infectious complications, disorganization of care, and burnout. Controversially, these risks have not been consistently confirmed by the scarce literature on the subject, and flexible ICU visiting hours have been proposed as a means to prevent delirium among patients and improve family satisfaction. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Disappointingly, studies evaluating the effectiveness and safety of flexible ICU visiting hours are scarce. To date, no large randomized trials have assessed the impact of a flexible visiting model on patients, family members, and ICU staff, and this evidence gap may constitute a barrier to the understanding of the best way to implement and improve ICU visiting policies. In the present pragmatic cluster-randomized crossover trial (The ICU Visits Study), we engaged 1,685 patients, 1,295 family members, and 826 ICU professionals from 36 adult ICUs in Brazil to compare a flexible visitation model (12 hours/day plus family education) vs. the standard restricted visitation model (median 90 minutes per day). We found that the flexible visitation did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium among patients, but was associated with fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression and higher satisfaction with care among family members in comparison to the usual restricted visitation. Also, the flexible visitation did not increase the incidence of ICU-acquired infections and ICU staff burnout, which are major concerns when adopting this intervention. MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Considering the evidence suggesting that most adult ICUs restrict the presence of family members, our results provide useful and relevant information that may influence the debate about current ICU visitation policies around the world. First, a flexible visitation policy that permits flexible family visitation in ICU (up to 12 hour per day) is feasible, given the high adherence of participant ICUs to implementation in The ICU Visits Study. Second, the flexible family supported by family education is safe regarding the occurrence of infections, disorganization of care or staff burnout. Third, family members - a commonly missing piece of the critical care puzzle - seem to benefit from the flexible visitation model through higher satisfaction with care and less symptoms of anxiety and depression. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work? Response: Future research might focus on the following topics: 1) methods of implementation of flexible visiting models in ICUs; 2) Family support interventions in the context of flexible ICU visiting hours (e.g.: psychological and social support, support for shared decision making, peer support, and comfort); and 3) How flexible ICU visiting hours affects patient, family member and staff outcome at long-term. Disclosures: The ICU Visits study was funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the Brazilian Unified Health System Institutional Development Program (PROADI-SUS). Citation: Effect of Flexible Family Visitation on Delirium Among Patients in the Intensive Care Unit [wysija_form id="3"] [last-modified] The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.Regis Goulart Rosa, MD, PhD Responsabilidade Social - PROADI Hospital Moinhos de Vento  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The debate about visiting policies in adult ICUs is of broad and current interest in critical care, with strong advocacy in favour of flexible family visitation models in order to promote patient- and family-centred care. However, the proportion of adult ICUs with unrestricted visiting hours is very low. Data from the literature show that 80% of hospitals in the United Kingdom and USA adopt restrictive ICU visiting policies. Among ICUs with restrictive visiting hours, published studies show that the daily visiting time ranges from a median of 1 hour in Italy to a mean of 4.7 hours in France. In agreement with this scenario, most adult ICUs in Brazil follow a restrictive visitation model, in which family members are allowed to visit the critically ill patient from 30 minutes to 1 hour, once or twice a day. These restrictive visitation models have been justified by the theoretical risks associated with unrestricted visiting hours, mainly infectious complications, disorganization of care, and burnout. Controversially, these risks have not been consistently confirmed by the scarce literature on the subject, and flexible ICU visiting hours have been proposed as a means to prevent delirium among patients and improve family satisfaction. 
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pharmacology / 01.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47717" align="alignleft" width="125"]Kuan-Pin Su, MD, PhDChina Medical UniversityTaichung, Taiwan Dr. Kuan-Pin Su[/caption] Kuan-Pin Su, MD, PhD China Medical University Taichung, Taiwan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. Delirium can often be traced to one or more contributing factors, such as a severe or chronic illness, changes in metabolic balance (such as low sodium), medication, infection, surgery, or alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal. It’s critically important to identify and treat delirium because some of the contributing factors could be life-threatening. However, there is no sufficient evidence for choice of medication to treat or prevent the symptoms of delirium. A recent paper, Association of Delirium Response and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Management and Prevention of Delirium A Network Meta-analysis, published in JAMA Psychiatry provides important findings of this missing piece in that important clinical uncertainty. The leading author, Professor Kuan-Pin Su, at the China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan, concludes the main finding about treatment/prevention of delirium: “In this report, we found that the combination of haloperidol and lorazepam demonstrated the best option for treatment of delirium, while ramelteon for prevention against delirium. 
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 25.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47588" align="alignleft" width="180"]Bheeshma Ravi, MD, PhD, FRCSC Scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Holland Centre Toronto, ON Dr. Ravi[/caption] Bheeshma Ravi, MD, PhD, FRCSC Scientist Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Holland Centre Toronto, ON MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Delirium is an acute change in mental status characterized by fluctuating disturbances of consciousness and attention. Elderly patients are prone to delirium after surgery; this contributes significantly to post-operative morbidity and can also lead to long-term disability. Our study found that among older adults undergoing hip fracture surgery, both an increased duration of surgery and a general anesthetic are associated with an increased risk for post-operative delirium.​ 
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, NEJM, Vanderbilt / 31.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_45592" align="alignleft" width="160"]Brenda Truman Pun, DNP, RN Program Clinical Manager Vanderbilt University Medical Center Dr. Truman Pun[/caption] Brenda Truman Pun, DNP, RN Program Clinical Manager Vanderbilt University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Delirium is a serious problem in Intensive Care Units around the world. Approximately 80% of mechanically ventilated patients develop delirium, acute confusion, while in the ICU. Once thought to be a benign side effect of the ICU environment, research now shows that delirium is linked to a myriad of negative outcomes for patients which include longer ICU and Hospital stays, prolonged time on the ventilator, increased cost, long-term cognitive impairment and even mortality. For a half a century clinicians have been using haloperidol, an typical antipsychotic, to treat delirium in the ICU. However, there has never been evidence to support the use of haloperidol or its pharmacologic cousins, the atypical antipsychotics, to treat delirium. These drugs have serious side effects that include heart arrhythmias, muscle spasms, restlessness and are associated with increased mortality when given for prolonged periods in the outpatient settings leading to a black box warning for their use in this setting. The MIND-USA study was a double blind placebo controlled trial which evaluated the efficacy and safety of antipsychotics (i.e., haloperidol and ziprasidone) in the treatment delirium in adult ICU patients.  
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Mental Health Research, NEJM, Vanderbilt / 24.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_45381" align="alignleft" width="133"]Eugene Wesley Ely, M.D. Dr. E. Wesley Ely is a Professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine with subspecialty training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. Dr. Ely
Photo: Anne Rayner, VU[/caption] Eugene Wesley Ely, M.D. Dr. E. Wesley Ely is a Professor of medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine with subspecialty training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Critically ill patients are not benefitting from antipsychotic medications that have been used to treat delirium in intensive care units (ICUs) for more than four decades, according to a study released today in the New England Journal of Medicine. Each year, more than 7 million hospitalized patients in the United States experience delirium, making them disoriented, withdrawn, drowsy or difficult to wake. The large, multi-site MIND USA (Modifying the INcidence of Delirium) study sought to answer whether typical and atypical antipsychotics — haloperidol or ziprasidone —affected delirium, survival, length of stay or safety. Researchers screened nearly 21,000 patients at 16 U.S. medical centers. Of the 1,183 patients on mechanical ventilation or in shock, 566 became delirious and were randomized into groups receiving either intravenous haloperidol, ziprasidone or placebo (saline).
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Mental Health Research / 04.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_40380" align="alignleft" width="125"]Yoanna Skrobik MD FRCP(c) MSc McGill University Health Centre Canada Dr. Skrobik[/caption] Yoanna Skrobik MD FRCP(c) MSc McGill University Health Centre Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: My clinical research interests revolve around critical care analgesia, sedation, and delirium. I validated the first delirium screening tool in mechanically ventilated ICU patients (published in 2001), described ICU delirium risk factors, associated outcomes, compared treatment modalities and described pharmacological exposure for the disorder. I was invited to participate in the 2013 Society of Critical Care Medicine Pain, Anxiety, and Delirium management guidelines, and served as the vice-chair for the recently completed Pain, Agitation, Delirium, Early Mobility and Sleep upcoming guidelines. Until this study, no pharmacological prevention or intervention could convincingly be considered effective in ICU delirium. Although Haloperidol and other antipsychotics are frequently used in practice, their lack of efficacy and possible disadvantages are increasingly being understood.
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 22.02.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “hospital.” by Bethany Satterfield is licensed under CC BY 2.0Mark van den Boogaard, PhD, RN, CCRN Assistant Professor Department of Intensive Care Medicine Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen Netherlands  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response:  Delirium is affecting many of our intensive care unit (ICU) patients which is impacting their recovery on the short-term as well as on the long-term. Therefore we were very interested to investigate if the use prophylactic haloperidol would be beneficial for the ICU patients. Especially because there were indications that it would be effective in ICU delirium prevention and also because this drug is being used in daily practice to prevent ICU delirium although there is no clear evidence. The overall finding of our large-scale well designed study is that we didn’t find any beneficial effect of prophylactic haloperidol in ICU patients. Moreover, this finding is very consistent over all groups of patients. 
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, JAMA, Surgical Research / 24.05.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen, RN, DNSc Vice Dean for Student Affairs Professor of Nursing National Taiwan University Nurse Supervisor at National Taiwan University Hospital Taipei, Taiwan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Older patients undergoing abdominal surgery often experience preventable delirium, which greatly influences their postoperative recovery and hospital length of stay. The modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) utilizes nurses to reduce postoperative delirium and LOS among older patients undergoing abdominal surgery for resection of malignant tumor. The mHELP consisted of 3 protocols: oral and nutritional assistance, early mobilization, and orienting communication, researchers say. Researchers at the National Taiwan University Hospital randomly assigned 377 patients undergoing abdominal surgery for a malignant tumor to an intervention (n = 197) or usual care (n = 180). Postoperative delirium occurred in 6.6 percent of mHELP participants vs 15.1 percent of control individuals (odds of delirium reduced by 56 percent). Intervention group participants received the mHELP for a median of 7 days, and they had a median LOS that was two days shorter (12 vs 14 days).
Author Interviews, CMAJ / 12.09.2014

Annemarieke de Jonghe Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Departement of Internal Medicine Section of Geriatric Medicine F4-218 Amsterdam, The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Annemarieke de Jonghe Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Departement of Internal Medicine Section of Geriatric Medicine F4-218 Amsterdam, The Netherlands Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Jonghe: We investigated the preventive properties of melatonin versus placebo in a prospective cohort of elderly hip fracture patients (n=378). We found that 3mg melatonin vs placebo, given for 5 days from the day of admission, did not influence the incidence of delirium. However, in a posthoc analysis we found that more patients in the placebo group more often had a longer lasting delirium.
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews / 14.04.2014

Sharon K. Inouye, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, Aging Brain Center, Institute for Aging Research Hebrew SeniorLife both in Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon K. Inouye, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, Aging Brain Center, Institute for Aging Research Hebrew SeniorLife both in Boston, MA Study Co- Authors Cyrus Kosar, Douglas Tommet, Eva Schmitt, Margaret Puelle, Jane Saczynski, Edward Marcantonio and Richard Jones.  MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Inouye: In this study, we developed and validated a new scoring system for delirium severity.  Delirium (acute confusional state) is a common and morbid complication of hospitalization for older persons, which often goes undetected.  Our new scoring system indicates that the severity of delirium is directly related to hospital outcomes, such as length of stay, nursing home placement, death, and healthcare costs.
Author Interviews, Emergency Care / 14.01.2014

Dr. Michael A. LaMantia Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Investigator and Assistant Professor of Medicine Indiana University School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Michael A. LaMantia Regenstrief Institute, Inc. Investigator and Assistant Professor of Medicine Indiana University School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. LaMantia: We conducted a systematic review of existing studies on delirium in emergency departments and found that neither completely validated delirium screening instruments nor an ideal schedule to perform delirium assessments exist there.
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, UCSF / 23.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Vanja Douglas, MD Sara & Evan Williams Foundation Endowed Neurohospitalist Chair Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology UCSF Department of Neurology Neurology Clerkship Director Editor in Chief, The NeurohospitalistVanja Douglas, MD Sara & Evan Williams Foundation Endowed Neurohospitalist Chair Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology UCSF Department of Neurology Neurology Clerkship Director Editor in Chief, The Neurohospitalist MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study found that a simple 2-minute assessment performed at the time of hospital admission can accurately predict an adult medical inpatient's risk of developing delirium during that hospitalization.