Rapid Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Infarction With a Single High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Measurement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Martin P. Than, MBBS
Emergency Department, Christchurch Hospital and
Dr John W Pickering, PhD
Associate Professor Senior Research Fellow in Acute Care
Emergency Care Foundation, Canterbury Medical Research Foundation, Canterbury District Health Board | Christchurch Hospital
Research Associate Professor | Department of Medicine | University of Otago
Christchurch New Zealand

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Patients being investigated for possible acute coronary syndrome comprise one of the largest groups of patients presenting to emergency rooms. Troponin assays have developed such that they can now measure with greater accuracy much lower concentrations of troponin. A large retrospective registry based study and a couple of smaller prospective studies suggested that patients with a very low concentrations of troponin T (below the current limit of detection of 5 ng/L) measured with Roche Diagnostic’s high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) assay on presentation to the emergency department (ie single blood draw) are very unlikely to be having a myocardial infarction (MI).

Our study gathers the current best evidence for using concentrations below the limit of detection in conjunction with no evidence of new ischaemia on ECG to safely risk stratify patients to a very low-risk group for MI and, therefore, potentially identify patients safe for early discharge.

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Women On Both Diabetes and Depression Medications Have Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction

Dr. Karin Rådholm MD Ph.D. Division of Community Medicine, Primary Care, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Department of Local Care West, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with
Dr. Karin Rådholm MD Ph.D. student
Division of Community Medicine, Primary Care, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University
Department of Local Care West, County Council of Östergötland,
Linköping, Sweden

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Rådholm: Psychosocial risk factors and depressive disorders often co-occur with general medical comorbidities, such as myocardial infarction. Depression is more common in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes. About 10-30% of patients with diabetes have a comorbid depressive disorder, which is double the estimated prevalence of depression in individuals without diabetes. There is an association between comorbid depressive symptoms and diabetes complications. This is believed to be mainly due to poor adherence to treatment recommendations and diabetes self-management activities, but could also possibly be due to biological and behavioural causes that could predispose for both metabolic and affective disorders. The general risk of myocardial infarction is strongly dependent on age and sex, where men have an earlier disease onset compared to women. In the general population women are at much lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality than men are. However, women with diabetes are at especially high risk for coronary heart disease, relatively more so than men with type 2 diabetes, meaning that the impact of diabetes on the risk of coronary death is significantly greater for women than men. The age- and gender-specific risk for myocardial infarction due to diabetes with coexistent depression has not previously been described. Data on all dispensed drug prescriptions in Sweden are available in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and all myocardial infarctions are registered in the Myocardial Infarction Statistics. These registers are population-based and have a total national coverage and high validity, which has been previously shown. Prescribed and dispensed antidiabetics and antidepressants were used as markers of disease.

Our objective was to prospectively explore the gender- and age-specific risk of first myocardial infarction in people treated with antidiabetic and/or antidepressant drugs compared to participants with no pharmaceutical treatment for diabetes or depression in a nationwide register study.

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Majority of Myocardial Infarction Patients Do Not Achieve Risk Factor Control

Andre Paixao, MD Division of Cardiology Emory University Atlanta, GA, 30322.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Andre Paixao, MD
Division of Cardiology
Emory University
Atlanta, GA, 30322.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Paixao: Despite advances in cardiovascular prevention, coronary heart disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding risk factor burden and control as well as perceived risk prior to acute myocardial infarction (MI) presentation may identify opportunities for system-based interventions to promote adherence to evidence based recommendations and improve overall cardiovascular health.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Paixao: Our study assessed predicted risk and risk factor control prior to Myocardial Infarction (MI) presentation in 443,117 patients included in the NCDR ACTION Registry-GWTG. Only 36.1% of patients met all assessed risk factor control metrics (i.e. LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, nonsmoking status and aspirin use among those with prior cardiovascular disease). Risk factor control was suboptimal in the primary and secondary prevention groups.

Prior cardiovascular disease was present in 41.6% of patients presenting with an acute MI. Among those without prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes, only 13.4% were classified as high risk based on the Framingham Risk Score. Continue reading

Do Intra-aortic Balloon Pumps Improve Heart Attack Survival?

intra-aortic balloon pump, WikipediaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sayan Sen, PhD

International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute
Imperial College London
London, United Kingdom

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Sayan Sen: Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are often used in Acute Myocardial Infarction, particularly in patients with cardiogenic shock. We analysed the available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) and observational studies, spanning 30 years, to establish the evidence for this use.

There is no identifiable group of patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction that have been demonstrated to derive a mortality benefit from insertion of an IABP. The studies, including over 17000 patients, have studied mortality in patients receiving IABP in comparison to mortality of patients that received no IABP in the era of no reperfusion, fibrinolysis and primary percutaneous intervention.  This lack of mortality reduction with IABP in AMI is consistent in patients with and without cardiogenic shock across both RCTs and observational studies; questioning the continued use of this technology in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

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JAMA Study Confirms Better Anticoagulation Choice After Myocardial Infarction

Karolina Szummer, MD, PhD Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Karolinska Institutet Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Karolina Szummer, MD, PhD
Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine
Karolinska Institutet Karolinska University Hospital
Stockholm, Sweden

Please note: This work is comparing the anticoagulant fondaparinux with low-molecular-weight heparin (not heparin).

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Szummer: Since the publication of the OASIS-5 trial in 2006, many hospitals chose to change their medical practice and start using fondaparinux instead of low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of myocardial infarctions. In this study from the nation-wide near-complete myocardial infarction registry we were able to follow how the use of fondaparinux instead of low-molecular-weight heparin translated in clinical life was associated to a reduction in bleeding events and death. It is a very satisfying study, that confirms that the randomized clinical trial results are transferred with improvements in outcome to the treated patients.

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Should Beta-Blockers Be Used After Myocardial Infarction?

Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI,
Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory,
Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group,
The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology,
Associate Professor of Medicine,
New York University School of Medicine,
New York, NY 10016.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Bangalore: The evidence to support beta blocker use for patients with myocardial infarction stems from outdated studies performed in the era prior to modern reperfusion and modern medical therapy. It is not know if the mortality benefit of beta blockers for MI are seen in the modern era.

Our data from randomized trials suggest a significant interaction between reperfusion era status and beta blocker benefit such that in the modern era beta blockers provide no mortality benefit when compared with controls. However, they are associated with short term (30-days) benefit for reduction in recurrent MI and angina but at the expense of increase in the risk of heart failure, cardiogenic shock and drug withdraw due to adverse events. The benefits were only short term (30-days).
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Diabetics with Acute Myocardial Infarction Have Higher Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jorge F. Saucedo MD
Allstate Foundation, Judson B. Branch Chair of Cardiology
Head, Division of Cardiology
Co-Director Cardiovascular Institute
NorthShore University HealthSystem
Clinical Professor of Medicine
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine

Talla A. Rousan, MD
Oklahoma City, OK.
First author of study.

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: It was found that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to patients without DM. Patients with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had higher in-hospital mortality rate than patients with non-insulin requiring diabetes mellitus.
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Lifestyle Practices May Prevent Most Heart Attacks in Men

Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer  Photo by Anna Persson                                                                   Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, SwedMedicalResearch.com Interview with
Agneta Åkesson
Associate professor, senior lecturer                                                  Nutritional Epidemiology
IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine
Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Åkesson: Our study indicates that a healthy diet together with low-risk lifestyle practices such as being physically active, not smoking and having a moderate alcohol consumption, and with the absence of abdominal adiposity may prevent the vast majority of myocardial infarctions in men.
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Myocardial Infarction: What Results in Delays for Stent Surgery in Transferred Patients?

Laurie Lambert, PhD Unité d'évaluation en cardiologie Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS) Montréal, QuébecMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Laurie Lambert, PhD
Unité d’évaluation en cardiologie
Institut national d’excellence en santé
et en services sociaux (INESSS)
Montréal, Québec

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lambert: Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are frequently transferred for percutaneous coronary reperfusion from a hospital without this capability. Favourable outcomes depend on minimizing delays to treatment. A major component of delay is the time from the patient’s arrival at the first hospital’s emergency department to departure to the hospital where percutaneous reperfusion will be performed, the ‘door-in-door-out’ time or DIDO. We characterized this component of delay in a systematic field evaluation of STEMI treatment over a large and populous geographic area.

The major contributors to DIDO time were the delays

  • (1) from the initial in-hospital ECG acquisition to transfer activation by the emergency physician and
  • (2) from arrival of the transfer ambulance at the first hospital to departure of the ambulance for the primary percutaneous coronary intervention center. When the DIDO interval was timely (30 minutes or less as recommended by guidelines), reperfusion treatment was far more frequently within guideline-recommended delays (90 minutes or less). In fact, this benchmark of DIDO time was met in only 14% of cases. We identified a number of factors associated with untimely DIDO, an important one being an ambiguous presenting ECG. DIDO times were faster when patients arrived at the first hospital by ambulance particularly when retransfer to the second hospital was with the same ambulance that had remained on standby.

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