Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Kidney Disease / 27.09.2014

Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD PhD Candidate Division of Nephrology Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Rome ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD PhD Candidate Division of Nephrology Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Rome Italy Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ferraro: We analyzed the association between physical activity and energy intake and the risk of developing kidney stones in three large cohorts of U.S. health professionals. The 215,133 participants included did not have any history of kidney stones when follow-up began. During 20 years of follow-up, 5,355 of them developed a kidney stone. Initially, we found that participants with higher physical activity levels had a reduced risk of developing stones in two of the three cohorts. However, after accounting for a number of factors that could potentially confound the association such as age, body mass index and dietary intake, the association was no longer significant. Similarly, energy intake was not associated with a reduced risk of developing kidney stones. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences, PLoS / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eero Haapala, MSc in Exercise Medicine, BASc PhD student University of Eastern Finland,School of Medicine Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology Kuopio, Finland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study is one of the first studies to investigate the different types of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic achievement in children. Our main finding was that children who were more physically active during school recess were better readers in Grades 1-3 than less active children. We also found a direct relationship between physically active school transportation, which was mainly walking and cycling, and reading skills in boys. These findings suggest that particularly physical activity within a school day benefits academic achievement and that physical activity benefit academic achievement more in boys than in girls 6-8 years of age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Statins / 10.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with David S.H. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice College of Pharmacy Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University Portland OR, 97239MedicalResearch.com Interview with David S.H. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice College of Pharmacy Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University Portland OR, 97239 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lee: We found that older men taking a statin were less physically active and had more sedentary behavior. They had about 37 minutes of less moderate exercise per week. For comparison, the American heart Association recommends about 40 minutes of moderate activity 3-4 times per week. We also found that those that started using a statin during the study had the largest drop in physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JCEM, Menopause / 24.05.2014

Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine Division of Adolescent Medicine The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10467MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine Division of Adolescent Medicine The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10467 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Khan: We wanted to find factors that lead to either an increase or decrease in risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We found that in middle aged overweight and obese women, who may not have any medical problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, an increase in weight over time and the development of any of the conditions stated above, increased the risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. On the other hand, even moderate physical activity decreased the risk of heart disease, even in the presence of the above stated conditions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, OBGYNE / 22.05.2014

Wei Bao MD, PhD Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wei Bao MD, PhD Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wei Bao: This study, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to examine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a high-risk population of T2DM. The main findings are: (1) Physical activity is inversely associated with risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Each 5-metabolic equivalent hours per week increment of total physical activity, which is equivalent to 100 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity or 50 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity, was related to a 9% lower risk of T2DM; this inverse association remained significant after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI). (2) An increase in physical activity is associated with a lower risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who maintained their total physical activity levels, women who increased their total physical activity levels by 7.5 MET-h/wk or more (equivalent to 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activityor 75 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity) had a 47% lower risk of T2DM; the association remained significant after additional adjustment for BMI. (3) Prolonged time spent watching TV, as a common sedentary behavior, is associated with an increased risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who watched TV 0 to 5 hours per week, those watched TV 6 to 10, 11 to 20, and 20 or more hours per week had 28%, 41%, and 77%, respectively, higher risk of T2DM. The association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for BMI. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness / 20.03.2014

Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Boniol: We conducted a meta-analysis of all prospective epidemiological studies on physical activity and risk of breast cancer. It includes 37 studies, so covers more than 4 million women among which more than 100,000 breast cancer were diagnosed. We showed that when comparing the most active women (about 20% of the population) to least active women (another 20% of the population), vigorous physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by 11%. And the good news is that this decline is irrespective of age, BMI, menopausal status, country,... It is also true for the most aggressive breast cancer (ER-/PR-). However, we also showed that this decline is not observed for women taking hormonal replacement therapies, as if these treatments (which are already infamous for poor efficacy and increasing the risk of breast cancer) would nullify any benefit from physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Pediatrics / 07.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chris Fritz BSs PEZZ Center for Pediatric Endocrinology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous physical activity (PA) behaviour in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase. 102 healthy school children were randomly placed in two groups. The control group continued three PE classes per week, whereas the intervention group had two out of three PE classes replaced by an individualised strength training program. At baseline there was no difference in anthropometry, body composition and PAEE between the groups. At the end of the training intervention, we found a significant increase of upper and lower body strength in the intervention group in boys and in girls. Boys significantly increased their PA by 10%. Without taking into account the energy expenditure during the strength training, the 10% PAEE increase corresponds to a weekly bike ride of 28 miles for a child of 40 kg body weight. Or in other words, an individualised school based strength training program increases energy expenditure outside the intervention by an equivalent of about 7kg of body fat corresponding to 10kg of chocolate per year. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 30.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: George Mammen, PhD Candidate Health & Exercise Psychology Unit University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer:
  • 25 out of the 30 studies found PA to protect against depression; majority of these were of high methodological quality
  • Decreasing PA overtime can increase the risk of developing depression; increasing PA overtime can reduce the risk of developing depression
  • In terms of dosage, the review highlighted studies that showed even low levels, such as 20 mins of walking a day, can prevent the onset of depression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA / 03.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview Ma, Wei Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics School of Public Health Shandong University Jinan, Shandong Province, 250012 China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an inverse dose-response association between levels of recreational physical activity and risk of hypertension. Individuals who participated in high levels of recreational physical activity had a 19% lower risk of hypertension than those who didn’t exercise much. In addition, those with moderate levels of recreational physical activity had an 11% lower risk of hypertension. However, there was no significant association between occupational physical activity and risk of hypertension. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Exercise - Fitness / 30.08.2013

Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology), MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL) VICTORIA UNIVERSITYMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology), MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL) VICTORIA UNIVERSITY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We examined the link between sitting-time and physical activity with current and future depressive symptoms in 8,950 mid aged women, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Both high sitting-time and low physical activity levels were associated with higher risk of current depressive symptoms, and in combination, the risk further increased. Compared with women sitting ≤4 hours/day and meeting the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week, women who sat >7 hrs/day and who did no physical activity were three times as likely to have depressive symptoms. However, only lack of physical activity was associated with increased risk of future depressive symptoms, irrespective of sitting-time. Women who did no physical activity were 26% more likely to have future depressive symptoms than women meeting physical activity recommendations. (more…)