Author Interviews, BMJ, Exercise - Fitness / 23.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Ulf Ekelund PhD Professor in Physical Activity and Health Department of Sport Medicine Norwegian School of Sport Sciences Oslo, Norway MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We know that physical activity of a moderate or vigorous intensity (such as brisk walking) is good for your health. More recently, it has also been shown that prolonged sitting is also linked to an increased risk for many chronic diseases and premature death. Current physical activity recommendations suggest that all adults should participate in at least 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity physical activity and that prolonged sitting should be avoided. However, how much sitting is too much? This is not specified and is widely debated. In addition, are levels of physical activity below those recommended still beneficial for health and does light intensity physical activity still count? Answering these questions have huge relevance for health promotion. We therefore performed a study analysing data from eight studies in which physical activity was assessed precisely with an activity monitor in about 36000 individuals followed for about six years during which more than 2500 died. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew J. Stork, PhD Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Postdoctoral Fellow The University of British Columbia School of Health & Exercise Sciences MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) involves multiple brief, high-intensity efforts, separated by periods of recovery. Research shows that several weeks of HIIT can elicit meaningful physical health benefits that are similar to those of traditional, long-duration aerobic exercise. While HIIT is time-efficient and can induce important health benefits, one major drawback is that people may find it to be unpleasant – especially those who are insufficiently active and not meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The potentially unpleasant nature of HIIT may deter people from beginning or adhering to a HIIT program. Consequently, researchers have begun to investigate the use of music as a potential strategy to enhance people’s pleasure during HIIT. However, the current research evidence is quite limited and, in particular, insufficiently active individuals have been understudied. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, JAMA, Johns Hopkins, Women's Heart Health / 14.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erin D. Michos, MD, MHS, FACC, FAHA, FASE Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Associate Director of Preventive Cardiology Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Victor Okunrintemi, MD, MPH Department of Internal Medicine East Carolina University Greenville, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Women are less physically active than men on average, and the lack of regular physical activity has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer health outcomes. Although recommendations encouraging regular physical activity has been in place for decades, we do not know how much of these recommendations are met, particularly among high risk women with established cardiovascular disease for secondary prevention. This study was therefore designed with the aim of describing the 10-year trends for the proportion of women with cardiovascular disease who do not meet these recommend physical activity levels, overall and by key sociodemographic groups, and the associated cost implications. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences / 22.01.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lloyd Brandts PhD Candidate Maastricht University Maastricht, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although the number of people who reached old age has increased over the past few decades, in some developing countries it has been observed that the increase in life expectancy started to plateau. One commonly used argument to explain this plateauing is the growing number of obese and physically inactive individuals. Therefore, we assessed whether there is an association between these factors and the chance of reaching the age of 90 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Neurology, Parkinson's / 23.09.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fudi Wang, M.D., Ph.D. Qiushi Chair Professor Nutrition Discovery Innovation Center School of Public Health/School of Medicine Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310058, ChinaFudi Wang, M.D., Ph.D. Qiushi Chair Professor Nutrition Discovery Innovation Center School of Public Health/School of Medicine Zhejiang University Hangzhou China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting approximately 10 million people around the world. To date, the cause of PD remains poorly understood. It is reported that 90% PD cases have no identifiable genetic cause. What’s worse, few therapeutic advances for the treatment of PD have been made in the past decades. Nevertheless, growing prospective longitudinal studies shed lights on the potential beneficial effect of lifestyle factors on reducing the risk of developing Parkinson disease. In this study, we performed a a dose-response meta-analysis of more than half a million participants. We found that physical activity, particularly moderate to vigorous physical activity, could significantly reduce PD risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease, JAMA / 06.04.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Alvin ChandraMD first author andDr. Scott David Solomon M.D.Director, Noninvasive Cardiology Professor, Harvard Medical School Cardiovascular Medicine Brigham and Women’s Hospital Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: In general, the quality of life of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients is quite impaired, and similar to that of patients on dialysis. PARADIGM-HF was the largest trial of heart failure patients and showed that sacubitril/valsartan was superior to the gold-standard enalapril in reducing cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality. In addition, patients on sacubitril/valsartan, when compared to enalapril, showed significant improvement in overall quality of life. In this study we looked in more detail at the individual components of “quality of life” and found that in virtually all domains and activities, patients who were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan reported improvement in their limitations compared to those who were randomized to enalapril. These activities included jogging, doing hobbies, and household chores, with the largest improvement seen in sexual activities limitations. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Heart Disease, NIH / 24.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Metabolic Epidemiology Branch Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics National Cancer Institute, NIH, HHS Rockville, MD 20850 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommends adults do 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity (PA) in increments of at least 10 minutes at a time. However, there is limited epidemiologic evidence supporting the use of the 10-minute increment and whether shorter increments (for instance walking up the stairs) can also be beneficial for health in adults. We looked at accelerometer-measured physical activity in roughly 5,000 adults (40 and older) representative of the US population and followed them prospectively (over 7 years) to determine whether physical activity accumulated in 10-minute increments, but also accumulated in shorter bursts, were associated with lower risk of death (mortality data came from the National Death Index). (more…)
Author Interviews, JACC, JAMA, Weight Research / 05.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “physical-activity-120112-M-2021D-019” by MilitaryHealth is licensed under CC BY 2.0Trine Moholdt, PhD Research Fellow Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging | Exercise, Cardiometabolic Health and Reproduction Norwegian University of Science and Technology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Although obese individuals have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, evidence from many observational studies shows that in those who already have cardiovascular disease, being overweight or obese is associated with lower risk of mortality compared to their normal weight counterparts. This phenomenon is often called the “obesity paradox”. Recently we observed that in individuals who have a high physical activity level, there is no such obesity paradox and body mass index did not associate with survival time in those who with high physical activity (Moholdt et al, American Journal of Medicine, 2017).(more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, MD Anderson / 01.02.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xifeng Wu MD PhD Prevention and Population Sciences MD Anderson Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous studies have shown that certain chronic diseases may predispose to cancer. These studies generally assessed chronic diseases or disease markers individually. As chronic diseases are typically clustered, it is necessary to study them simultaneously to elucidate their independent and joint impact on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the independent and joint effect of several common chronic diseases or disease markers on cancer and life span in a large prospective cohort. Also, we compared the contribution of chronic diseases or disease markers to cancer risk with that of lifestyle factors. We further assessed whether physical activity could attenuate the cancer risk associated with chronic diseases or disease markers. We hope the results of this study can contribute to evidence-based recommendations for future cancer prevention strategies. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Geriatrics / 29.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael J. LaMonte, PhD, MPH Research Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Co-Director, MPH Program (epidemiology) School of Public Health and Health Professions Women’s Health Initiative Clinic University at Buffalo – SUNYMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Current national public health guidelines recommend 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week for adults. The guidelines recommend persons 65 and older follow the adult guidelines to the degree their abilities and conditions allow. Some people, because of age or illness or deconditioning, are not able to do more strenuous activity. Current guidelines do not specifically encourage light activity because the evidence base to support such a recommendation has been lacking. Results from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study, an ancillary study to the U.S. Women’s Health Initiative, recently published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society showed women ages 65-99 who engaged in regular light intensity physical activities had a reduction in the risk of mortality. The 6,000 women in the OPACH study wore an activity-measuring device called an accelerometer on their hip for seven days while going about their daily activities and were then followed for up to four and a half years. Results showed that just 30 additional minutes of light physical activity per day lowered mortality risk by 12 percent while 30 additional minutes of moderate activity, such as brisk walking or bicycling at a leisurely pace, exhibited a 39 percent lower risk. The finding for lower mortality risk associated with light intensity activity truly is remarkable. We anticipated seeing mortality benefit associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, as supported by current public health guidelines. But, observing significantly lower mortality among women who were active at levels only slightly higher than what defines being sedentary was such a novel finding with important relevance to population health. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Exercise - Fitness, Lifestyle & Health / 08.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: I-Min Lee, MD, ScD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The fact that physical activity lowers the risk of premature mortality is not a new fact – we have many studies showing this. However, previous studies have primarily relied on self-reported physical activity, and self-reports tend to be imprecise. Based on these self-report studies, we know that physical activity is associated with a 20-30% reduction in mortality rates. And, these self-report studies also have focused on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, since they are more reliably reported than lighter intensity activity. We have little information on whether light-intensity activities (e.g., light household chores, very slow walking such as when strolling and window shopping) are associated with lower mortality rates. We now have “wearables” – devices that can more precisely measure physical activity at low (as well as higher) intensities, and sedentary behavior. The present study, conducted between 2011 and 2015, investigated a large cohort of older women (n=16,741; mean age, 72 years) who were asked to wear these devices for a week – thus, providing detailed physical activity and sedentary behavior measures. During an average follow-up of about two-and-a-half years, 207 women died. The study confirmed that physical activity is related to lower mortality rates. What is new and important is how strong this association is when we have more precise measures of physical activity – the most active women had a 60-70% reduction in mortality rates, compared with the least active, during the study. For context, non-smokers have about a 50% risk reduction, compared to smokers, which is why patients (and doctors) should pay attention to being physically active. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 20.10.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Deepika Laddu PhD Assistant Professor Department of Physical Therapy College of Applied Health Sciences The University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL 60612MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Recent findings in population-based cohort studies on cumulative exercise dose have caused some controversy and debate showing U-shaped trends of association between physical activity and disease risk. Our objective was to better understand this association between physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk from young adulthood to middle age. Given that engagement in physical activity is a continuously evolving behavior throughout life, this study looked at the physical activity trajectories of 3,175 black and white participants in the multicenter, community-based, longitudinal cohort CARDIA study who reported physical activity patterns over 25 years (from 1985 through 2011), and assessed the presence of coronary artery calcification, or CAC, among participants. Unique to this study is the evaluation of long-term exercise patterns from young adulthood into middle age in CARDIA participants. Based on the trajectories (or patterns of change) of physical activity over 25 years, participants were categorized into three distinct trajectory groups: trajectory group one was defined as exercising below the national guidelines (less than 150 minutes a week), group two as meeting the national guidelines for exercise (150 minutes a week), and group three as exercising three-times the national guidelines (more than 450 minutes a week). (more…)
Author Interviews, Global Health, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 07.02.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chicago MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Our NIH-funded study is led by Dr. Amy Luke, Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, and is titled “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition study” or METS. It was initiated in 2010, and 2,500 young African-origin adults were recruited from 5 countries, spanning the Human Development Index (HDI), a WHO index used to rank countries according to 4 tiers of development. The 5 countries include the US, Seychelles, Jamaica, South Africa, and Ghana. Within each country 500 young adults, 25-45 yrs., and 50% male, were recruited and followed prospectively for 3 years. Each year, contactable participants completed a health screening, body composition, wore an activity monitor for 7 days, and told researchers everything they had eaten in the preceding 24hrs. Our main research questions we were trying to answer were to understand the impact of diet and physical activity on the development of obesity, and cardiovascular disease in young adults. It was important to have countries spanning the HDI, with differences in both country-level dietary intake and physical activity levels. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Colon Cancer, Exercise - Fitness / 21.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brendan John Guercio, M.D. Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT) Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Sedentary lifestyle is a known risk factor for the development of colon cancer and has been associated with increased disease recurrence and mortality in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. This is the first study to our knowledge to show an association between increased physical activity (i.e. non-sedentary lifestyle) and improved survival and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 29.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM Professor Department of Sports Medicine Norwegian School of Sport SciencesMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: It is known that long sitting hours may be detrimental to health and previous studies have suggested associations between sitting time and all-cause mortality.However, it is not known whether physical activity can eliminate the increased risk of death associated with long sitting time. We found that at least one hour of physical activity every day appear to offset the increased risk associated with more than eight hours of sitting. We also found that those who were physically inactive and sat for less than 4 hours every day were at greater risk compared with those who were physically active and sat for more than 8 hours providing further evidence on the benefits of physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Global Health, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 29.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow Prevention Research Collaboration Sydney School of Public Health The University of Sydney MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Understanding the true burden of a pandemic is indispensable for informed decision making. After decades of research, we now have established knowledge about how physical inactivity contributes to pre-mature deaths and chronic diseases, but the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. Through estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity for the first time, we hope to create a business case for investing in cost-effective actions to promote physical activity at the global levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Exercise - Fitness, JAMA, Lifestyle & Health / 02.12.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina Hoang MSPH Staff Research Associate Northern California Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Medical Center Dr. Kristine Yaffe MD Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology University of California San Francisco, CA 94121 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We assessed physical activity and TV watching in young adults over 25 years to see if there was an association with cognitive function in middle age. Most previous studies have only considered this association in older adults. We found that both low physical activity and high TV watching over time were associated with worse cognitive function. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, BMJ, Exercise - Fitness / 05.08.2015

Dr David Hupin CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr David Hupin CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, France Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Hupin: Today, over 95% of the world’s population has health problems, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study published recently in The Lancet. The proportion of healthy years lost due to disease rapidly increased with age. There is no medical treatment that can influence as many diseases in a positive manner as can physical activity. It is well established that regular physical activity is an efficient strategy for successful aging. The 2008 Physical Activity guidelines for Americans recommend a minimum of 150 min of moderate-intensity (>3 MET) or 75 min of vigorous-intensity (≥6 MET) physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A Metabolic Equivalent or MET is a unit useful for describing the energy expenditure of a specific physical activity. However, less than 50% of older adults are able to achieve the current recommendations of physical activity. Thus, the prescription of physical activity for older adults needs to be clarified, i.e., what "dose" of physical activity is required. Medical Research: What is the design of your study?Dr. Hupin: Within the dynamic Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology of University Hospital of St-Etienne, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Out of at total of 835 relevant studies, nine were suitable for analysis. These involved a total of 122, 417 participants, monitored for an average of around 10 years, during which time 18,122 died. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Exercise - Fitness, Technology / 13.05.2015

Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: In medical and sport science research, body-worn accelerometers are widely used to provide objective measurements of physical activity. However, accelerometers collect data continuously even during periods of nonwear (i.e. periods when participants may not be wearing their monitor, such as during sleeping). It is important to distinguish time of sedentary behaviours (eg. watching television) from time of nonwear. The clinical consequence of misclassification of accelerometer wear and nonwear would overestimate or underestimate physical activity level, and mislead the interpretation of the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes. Automated estimation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time events is particularly desired by large cohort studies, but algorithms for this purpose are not yet standardized and their accuracy needs to be established. This study presents a robust method of classifying wear and nonwear time events under free living conditions for triaxial accelerometers which combines acceleration and surface skin temperature data. The new findings are: Either acceleration data or skin temperature data alone is inadequate to accurately predict wear and nonwear events in some scenarios under a free living condition; This study provides a simple and efficient algorithm on use of short time periods of consecutive data blocks for accurately predicting triaxial accelerometer wear and nonwear events; Combining both types of acceleration and skin temperature data can significantly improve the accuracy of accelerometer wear and nonwear events classification in monitoring physical activity. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Case Western, Nursing / 17.04.2015

kathy-wrightMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kathy Wright, PhD, RN, GCNS-BC, PMHCNS-BC KL2 Postdoc, Clinical Instructor 2011-13 SAMHSA Scholar 2010-12 National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence Patricia G. Archbold Scholar Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?Dr. Wright: This study was a secondary analysis of baseline data from the After Discharge Care Management of Low Income Frail Elderly (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality grant #1 R01 HS014539-01A1). The participants were aged 65 and older enrolled during an acute care hospitalization. Each participant had at least one deficit in activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, dressing) or two deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (e.g., transportation, paying bills). The purpose of the study was to test House’s Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees in a group of low-income older adults to determine the relationships between socio-demographic factors (i.e., race, education, age, gender, income, and neighborhood poverty), health behaviors, and physical function and emotional well-being. As a part of the health behavior component, participants were interviewed and asked questions regarding the amount of physical activity they engaged in during the week. (more…)
Aging, AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 20.02.2015

Thomas W. Buford, PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine Director, Health Promotion Center University of Florida Institute on AgingMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas W. Buford, PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine Director, Health Promotion Center University of Florida Institute on Aging Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Buford: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from over 1000 older adults upon their entry into the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. Briefly, participants were recruited into the LIFE Study who were over 70 years of age, sedentary, and had mobility limitations. The objective of this study was to examine, at baseline prior to their participation in the study interventions, the association between daily physical activity habits and risk of major cardiovascular events (i.e. heart attack and coronary-related death). The study utilized accelerometers, devices designed to identify and quantify human movement, to measure participant’s daily activity. Predicted risk of cardiovascular events was determined using a risk score established in the Framingham Heart Study. As identified by accelerometry measures, participants spent on average 70% of their waking hours being sedentary. The major finding of the study, however, was that even extremely low-level activity was associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile. For every 25-30 minutes a participant was sedentary per day, predicted risk was 1 percent higher. Conversely, But activity identified as slightly above sedentary — which could be light housework or slow walking — was associated with higher levels of the more beneficial kind of cholesterol, HDL, in people with no history of heart disease.(more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Geriatrics, PLoS / 19.02.2015

Tess Harris St George’s University of LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tess Harris St George’s University of London   MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Response: Physical activity is vital for both physical and mental health in older people, preventing at least 20 common health problems. Yet the majority of older people do not achieve the World Health Organisation physical activity guidelines for health of at least 150 minutes every week of at least moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity in bouts that each last at least 10 minutes. Brisk walking is a good way to achieve moderate intensity physical activity, with a low risk of harm. Pedometers can give you direct feedback on your step-count and accelerometers record both step-counts and the intensity of physical activity achieved. The PACE-Lift trial assessed whether an intervention to increase walking, comprising pedometer and accelerometer feedback, combined with physical activity consultations provided by practice nurses over a 3 month period, based on simple behaviour change techniques, could lead to sustained increases in physical activity in 60-75 year olds. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences, Heart Disease / 17.02.2015

Dr. Miranda ArmstrongMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Miranda ArmstrongM.Phil. Physical Activity Epidemiologist Cancer Epidemiology Unit University of Oxford Oxford, UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Armstrong: Physical activity has generally been associated with reduced risk of heart disease. However, there is limited evidence on the associations between the frequency and durations of various activities with stroke and blood clots, especially in middle-aged women. This is a very large study of 1.1 million middle-aged women, which confirms the benefits of moderate activity for reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Further to this, it shows that benefits may be more wide ranging than previously thought as the risk of blood clots was also lower in women reporting moderate activity when compared to inactive women. We found little evidence to suggest that activity more frequent than a few times per week provided further benefits in relation to these diseases. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences, Primary Care / 10.02.2015

Molly B. Conroy MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Clinical and Translational Science University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA,MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Molly B. Conroy MD, MPHAssistant Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Clinical and Translational ScienceUniversity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background for the study is the fact that middle-aged women are at high risk for being physically inactive, which puts them at higher risk for heart disease, cancer, and other chronic health problems. We compared an interventionist-led physical activity and weight loss program delivered in coordination with primary care to a booklet that women were asked to use to exercise by themselves at home. We found that women who received the interventionist-led program had significantly greater increases in physical activity at 3 months, compared to women who received booklet. At 12 months, women who received the interventionist-led program were still more active than they were before starting the program, although the difference between the 2 groups was no longer significant. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 06.02.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Paula Iso-Markku, MD, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki Helsinki , Finland MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Iso-Markku : The social, financial and humane burden of the dementia is extensive as the worldwide prevalence of dementia is estimated around 35.6 million. Finding efficient prevention strategies for dementia is crucial. Within the past decade vascular risk factors have been recognized as very potential risk factors of dementia. As physical activity is known to affect vascular risk factors, it might also be a potential preventive tool against dementia. Few comprehensive epidemiological studies on physical activity in middle age and dementia occurrence later in life have been conducted. The comprehensive Finnish Twin Study offers a unique approach to the subjects as the shared growing up environment and genes can be taken into account. The study population is extensive and a good representation of the Finnish population. In this study the association of physical activity in adulthood and dementia mortality was investigated in a 29-year follow-up. The main finding in this study was that persistent vigorous (i.e. more strenuous than walking) physical activity was significantly associated with lower dementia mortality. The results in the paired analysis, comparing twins to co-twins, were similar but remained non-significant. The analyses of the volume of physical activity were, however, controversial. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 03.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Comments from Virpi Kuvaja-Köllner and her team: Project manager, teacher, M.Sc. (Health Economics), PhD Student University of Eastern Finland Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies Department of Health and Social Management Medical Research: What is the background for this study?Response: As we all know insufficient physical activity (PA) is associated with an increased risk of various chronic diseases and increases in health care expenditure. However, there are some economic evaluation studies related to physical activity interventions that have proved some of those interventions can offer “good value for money”. Unfortunately, most of these studies have focused on interventions at the individual or patient group level. It is easy to notice that there is a lack of studies related to cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions at the population level. Somehow this is controversial because the need to increase physical activity in the population is urgent and the public funding for health care and other services is tighter than ever. We should remember that if we can increase physical activity among large population groups, especially among those whoare physically inactive, it might also have an impact on our healthcare costs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 03.11.2014

Paul D. Loprinzi, PhD Center for Health Behavior Research Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management The University of Mississippi, University, MS.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul D. Loprinzi, PhD Center for Health Behavior Research Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management The University of Mississippi, University, MS. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Dr. Loprinzi: COPD not only induces inflammation in the lung, but systemic inflammation as well. Therefore, individuals with COPD are at an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease as a result of increased systemic inflammation. Physical activity has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation in the general population, but the association between physical activity and systemic inflammation among those with COPD is less established. Our study demonstrated that individuals with COPD who were more active had less systemic inflammation than those who were less active. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness, Genetic Research / 01.10.2014

Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with:Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical Center   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?Dr. Klimentidis:The main finding is that the association of physical activity with type-2 diabetes risk is weakest among those who are at high genetic risk for type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, we find that this trend is stronger among women as compared to men, and that it appears to be driven mainly by genetic risk to insulin resistance, as opposed to genetic risk for reduced beta-cell function. (more…)