Physical Activity In Decline For Most Kids By School Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor John J Reilly
University of Strathclyde Glasgow
Physical Activity for Health Group
Scotland, UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There is Concern that levels of physical activity among modern children are typically very low, well below the amounts recommended for their physical & mental health, well-being, and academic attainment.

It has been assumed for many years that physical activity levels begin to become a problem at adolescence, and this adolescent decline in activity is especially marked in girls.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

1. Physical activity- in our sample of 545 individuals studies at ages seven, nine, 12, and 15 using activity monitors for six to seven days at each time point- was already low and was in decline from age seven, well before adolescence.

2. The physical activity decline was not especially marked at adolescence, or in girls.

3. In a minority of boys (19% of boys) and girls (12% of girls) physical activity was maintained at a relatively high level from age seven to 15 years. these are interesting exceptions to the general pattern.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: We should no longer see girls,or adolescents, as the only high risk groups for low physical activity; the entire population is at high risk.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Efforts to promote or maintain physical activity need to start well before adolescence, and should not just focus on girls. Physical activity seems to be in decline in most children by the time they start school. We need to address more research and policy effort at lifestyles of younger children of both sexes.

We also need to direct more research effort at the interesting minority in both sexes who maintained a relatively high physical activity from age seven to 15 years. We don’t know why they were different to the rest – for example, were they more engaged in sport ? – and understanding why and how they differed from the rest of the population would help us develop strategies for preventing the age-related decline in physical activity in future.

There are no conflicts of interest to declare. The work was funded by the UK MRC and the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Farooq MA, Parkinson KN, Adamson AJ, et al

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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paul.gallagher@strath.ac.uk

 

Physical Activity Not Enough To Ward Off Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chica

Dr. Lara Dugas

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS
Public Health Sciences
Loyola University Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our NIH-funded study is led by Dr. Amy Luke, Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, and is titled “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition study” or METS. It was initiated in 2010, and 2,500 young African-origin adults were recruited from 5 countries, spanning the Human Development Index (HDI), a WHO index used to rank countries according to 4 tiers of development. The 5 countries include the US, Seychelles, Jamaica, South Africa, and Ghana. Within each country 500 young adults, 25-45 yrs., and 50% male, were recruited and followed prospectively for 3 years. Each year, contactable participants completed a health screening, body composition, wore an activity monitor for 7 days, and told researchers everything they had eaten in the preceding 24hrs. Our main research questions we were trying to answer were to understand the impact of diet and physical activity on the development of obesity, and cardiovascular disease in young adults. It was important to have countries spanning the HDI, with differences in both country-level dietary intake and physical activity levels.

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Physical Activity Linked to Improved Survival from Metastatic Colon Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brendan John Guercio, M.D. Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT) Brigham and Women's Hospital

Dr. Brendan Guercio

Brendan John Guercio, M.D.
Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT)
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Sedentary lifestyle is a known risk factor for the development of colon cancer and has been associated with increased disease recurrence and mortality in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. This is the first study to our knowledge to show an association between increased physical activity (i.e. non-sedentary lifestyle) and improved survival and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

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Relatively Brief Physical Activity Can Offset Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM Professor Department of Sports Medicine Norwegian School of Sport Sciences

Prof. Ulf Ekelund

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM
Professor
Department of Sports Medicine
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: It is known that long sitting hours may be detrimental to health and previous studies have suggested associations between sitting time and all-cause mortality.However, it is not known whether physical activity can eliminate the increased risk of death associated with long sitting time.

We found that at least one hour of physical activity every day appear to offset the increased risk associated with more than eight hours of sitting. We also found that those who were physically inactive and sat for less than 4 hours every day were at greater risk compared with those who were physically active and sat for more than 8 hours providing further evidence on the benefits of physical activity.

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Pandemic of Global Physical Inactivity Costs Lives and Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow/Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow Prevention Research Collaboration Sydney School of Public Health The University of Sydney

Dr. Melody Ding

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH
NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow
Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Prevention Research Collaboration
Sydney School of Public Health
The University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Understanding the true burden of a pandemic is indispensable for informed decision making. After decades of research, we now have established knowledge about how physical inactivity contributes to pre-mature deaths and chronic diseases, but the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. Through estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity for the first time, we hope to create a business case for investing in cost-effective actions to promote physical activity at the global levels.

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Physical Activity Important For Brain Health At Any Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tina Hoang MSPH
Staff Research Associate
Northern California Institute for Research and Education,
Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Dr. Kristine Yaffe MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology
University of California
San Francisco, CA  94121

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We assessed physical activity and TV watching in young adults over 25 years to see if there was an association with cognitive function in middle age.  Most previous studies have only considered this association in older adults. We found that both low physical activity and high TV watching over time were associated with worse cognitive function.

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Even Low Dose Physical Activity Helpful In Reducing Mortality

Dr David Hupin CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr David Hupin

CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord
Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l’Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, France

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Hupin: Today, over 95% of the world’s population has health problems, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study published recently in The Lancet. The proportion of healthy years lost due to disease rapidly increased with age. There is no medical treatment that can influence as many diseases in a positive manner as can physical activity. It is well established that regular physical activity is an efficient strategy for successful aging. The 2008 Physical Activity guidelines for Americans recommend a minimum of 150 min of moderate-intensity (>3 MET) or 75 min of vigorous-intensity (≥6 MET) physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A Metabolic Equivalent or MET is a unit useful for describing the energy expenditure of a specific physical activity. However, less than 50% of older adults are able to achieve the current recommendations of physical activity. Thus, the prescription of physical activity for older adults needs to be clarified, i.e., what “dose” of physical activity is required.

Medical Research: What is the design of your study?

Dr. Hupin: Within the dynamic Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology of University Hospital of St-Etienne, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Out of at total of 835 relevant studies, nine were suitable for analysis. These involved a total of 122, 417 participants, monitored for an average of around 10 years, during which time 18,122 died.

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Combining Acceleration and Skin Temperature Can Improve Accuracy of Physical Activity Monitors

Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou
Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health,
Public Health Informatics Group,
Health Information Research Unit (HIRU),
UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre,
College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In medical and sport science research, body-worn accelerometers are widely used to provide objective measurements of physical activity. However, accelerometers collect data continuously even during periods of nonwear (i.e. periods when participants may not be wearing their monitor, such as during sleeping). It is important to distinguish time of sedentary behaviours (eg. watching television) from time of nonwear. The clinical consequence of misclassification of accelerometer wear and nonwear would overestimate or underestimate physical activity level, and mislead the interpretation of the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes. Automated estimation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time events is particularly desired by large cohort studies, but algorithms for this purpose are not yet standardized and their accuracy needs to be established. This study presents a robust method of classifying wear and nonwear time events under free living conditions for triaxial accelerometers which combines acceleration and surface skin temperature data.

The new findings are: Either acceleration data or skin temperature data alone is inadequate to accurately predict wear and nonwear events in some scenarios under a free living condition; This study provides a simple and efficient algorithm on use of short time periods of consecutive data blocks for accurately predicting triaxial accelerometer wear and nonwear events; Combining both types of acceleration and skin temperature data can significantly improve the accuracy of accelerometer wear and nonwear events classification in monitoring physical activity. Continue reading

Physical Activity Including Housework Linked To Better Physical and Emotional Aging

kathy-wrightMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kathy Wright, PhD, RN, GCNS-BC, PMHCNS-BC
KL2 Postdoc, Clinical Instructor 2011-13 SAMHSA Scholar
2010-12 National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence
Patricia G. Archbold Scholar
Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing
Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Wright: This study was a secondary analysis of baseline data from the After Discharge Care Management of Low Income Frail Elderly (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality grant #1 R01 HS014539-01A1). The participants were aged 65 and older enrolled during an acute care hospitalization. Each participant had at least one deficit in activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, dressing) or two deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (e.g., transportation, paying bills). The purpose of the study was to test House’s Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees in a group of low-income older adults to determine the relationships between socio-demographic factors (i.e., race, education, age, gender, income, and neighborhood poverty), health behaviors, and physical function and emotional well-being. As a part of the health behavior component, participants were interviewed and asked questions regarding the amount of physical activity they engaged in during the week.

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Even Low-Level Physical Activity Improves Cardiac Risk

Thomas W. Buford, PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine Director, Health Promotion Center University of Florida Institute on AgingMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Thomas W. Buford, PhD
Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine
Director, Health Promotion Center
University of Florida Institute on Aging

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Buford: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from over 1000 older adults upon their entry into the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. Briefly, participants were recruited into the LIFE Study who were over 70 years of age, sedentary, and had mobility limitations. The objective of this study was to examine, at baseline prior to their participation in the study interventions, the association between daily physical activity habits and risk of major cardiovascular events (i.e. heart attack and coronary-related death). The study utilized accelerometers, devices designed to identify and quantify human movement, to measure participant’s daily activity. Predicted risk of cardiovascular events was determined using a risk score established in the Framingham Heart Study. As identified by accelerometry measures, participants spent on average 70% of their waking hours being sedentary. The major finding of the study, however, was that even extremely low-level activity was associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile. For every 25-30 minutes a participant was sedentary per day, predicted risk was 1 percent higher. Conversely, But activity identified as slightly above sedentary — which could be light housework or slow walking — was associated with higher levels of the more beneficial kind of cholesterol, HDL, in people with no history of heart disease.
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