Wearable Device Study Confirms Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity Linked To Decreased Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Brigham and Women's Hospital Boston, MA 02215

Dr. Lee

I-Min Lee, MD, ScD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The fact that physical activity lowers the risk of premature mortality is not a new fact – we have many studies showing this.  However, previous studies have primarily relied on self-reported physical activity, and self-reports tend to be imprecise.  Based on these self-report studies, we know that physical activity is associated with a 20-30% reduction in mortality rates.  And, these self-report studies also have focused on moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, since they are more reliably reported than lighter intensity activity.  We have little information on whether light-intensity activities (e.g., light household chores, very slow walking such as when strolling and window shopping) are associated with lower mortality rates.

We now have “wearables” – devices that can more precisely measure physical activity at low (as well as higher) intensities, and sedentary behavior.  The present study, conducted between 2011 and 2015, investigated a large cohort of older women (n=16,741; mean age, 72 years)  who were asked to wear these devices for a week – thus, providing detailed physical activity and sedentary behavior measures.  During an average follow-up of about two-and-a-half years, 207 women died.  The study confirmed that physical activity is related to lower mortality rates.

What is new and important is how strong this association is when we have more precise measures of physical activity – the most active women had a 60-70% reduction in mortality rates, compared with the least active, during the study.  For context, non-smokers have about a 50% risk reduction, compared to smokers, which is why patients (and doctors) should pay attention to being physically active.

Continue reading

Very High Exercise Levels Linked To Increase in Coronary Artery Calcification

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deepika Laddu PhD Assistant Professor Department of Physical Therapy College of Applied Health Sciences The University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL 60612

Dr. Laddu

Deepika Laddu PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Physical Therapy
College of Applied Health Sciences
The University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, IL 60612 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recent findings in population-based cohort studies on cumulative exercise dose have caused some controversy and debate showing U-shaped trends of association between physical activity and disease risk. Our objective was to better understand this association between physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk from young adulthood to middle age.

Given that engagement in physical activity is a continuously evolving behavior throughout life, this study looked at the physical activity trajectories of 3,175 black and white participants in the multicenter, community-based, longitudinal cohort CARDIA study who reported physical activity patterns over 25 years (from 1985 through 2011), and assessed the presence of coronary artery calcification, or CAC, among participants. Unique to this study is the evaluation of long-term exercise patterns from young adulthood into middle age in CARDIA participants. Based on the trajectories (or patterns of change) of physical activity over 25 years, participants were categorized into three distinct trajectory groups: trajectory group one was defined as exercising below the national guidelines (less than 150 minutes a week), group two as meeting the national guidelines for exercise (150 minutes a week), and group three as exercising three-times the national guidelines (more than 450 minutes a week).

Continue reading

Physical Activity In Decline For Most Kids By School Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor John J Reilly
University of Strathclyde Glasgow
Physical Activity for Health Group
Scotland, UK 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There is Concern that levels of physical activity among modern children are typically very low, well below the amounts recommended for their physical & mental health, well-being, and academic attainment.

It has been assumed for many years that physical activity levels begin to become a problem at adolescence, and this adolescent decline in activity is especially marked in girls.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

1. Physical activity- in our sample of 545 individuals studies at ages seven, nine, 12, and 15 using activity monitors for six to seven days at each time point- was already low and was in decline from age seven, well before adolescence.

2. The physical activity decline was not especially marked at adolescence, or in girls.

3. In a minority of boys (19% of boys) and girls (12% of girls) physical activity was maintained at a relatively high level from age seven to 15 years. these are interesting exceptions to the general pattern.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: We should no longer see girls,or adolescents, as the only high risk groups for low physical activity; the entire population is at high risk.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Efforts to promote or maintain physical activity need to start well before adolescence, and should not just focus on girls. Physical activity seems to be in decline in most children by the time they start school. We need to address more research and policy effort at lifestyles of younger children of both sexes.

We also need to direct more research effort at the interesting minority in both sexes who maintained a relatively high physical activity from age seven to 15 years. We don’t know why they were different to the rest – for example, were they more engaged in sport ? – and understanding why and how they differed from the rest of the population would help us develop strategies for preventing the age-related decline in physical activity in future.

There are no conflicts of interest to declare. The work was funded by the UK MRC and the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Farooq MA, Parkinson KN, Adamson AJ, et al

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

 

 

paul.gallagher@strath.ac.uk

 

Physical Activity Not Enough To Ward Off Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chica

Dr. Lara Dugas

Lara Dugas, PhD, MPH, FTOS
Public Health Sciences
Loyola University Chicago

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Our NIH-funded study is led by Dr. Amy Luke, Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago, and is titled “Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition study” or METS. It was initiated in 2010, and 2,500 young African-origin adults were recruited from 5 countries, spanning the Human Development Index (HDI), a WHO index used to rank countries according to 4 tiers of development. The 5 countries include the US, Seychelles, Jamaica, South Africa, and Ghana. Within each country 500 young adults, 25-45 yrs., and 50% male, were recruited and followed prospectively for 3 years. Each year, contactable participants completed a health screening, body composition, wore an activity monitor for 7 days, and told researchers everything they had eaten in the preceding 24hrs. Our main research questions we were trying to answer were to understand the impact of diet and physical activity on the development of obesity, and cardiovascular disease in young adults. It was important to have countries spanning the HDI, with differences in both country-level dietary intake and physical activity levels.

Continue reading

Physical Activity Linked to Improved Survival from Metastatic Colon Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brendan John Guercio, M.D. Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT) Brigham and Women's Hospital

Dr. Brendan Guercio

Brendan John Guercio, M.D.
Clinical Fellow in Medicine (EXT)
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Sedentary lifestyle is a known risk factor for the development of colon cancer and has been associated with increased disease recurrence and mortality in patients with early stage colorectal cancer. This is the first study to our knowledge to show an association between increased physical activity (i.e. non-sedentary lifestyle) and improved survival and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Continue reading

Relatively Brief Physical Activity Can Offset Adverse Effects of Prolonged Sitting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM Professor Department of Sports Medicine Norwegian School of Sport Sciences

Prof. Ulf Ekelund

Ulf Ekelund, PhD FACSM
Professor
Department of Sports Medicine
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: It is known that long sitting hours may be detrimental to health and previous studies have suggested associations between sitting time and all-cause mortality.However, it is not known whether physical activity can eliminate the increased risk of death associated with long sitting time.

We found that at least one hour of physical activity every day appear to offset the increased risk associated with more than eight hours of sitting. We also found that those who were physically inactive and sat for less than 4 hours every day were at greater risk compared with those who were physically active and sat for more than 8 hours providing further evidence on the benefits of physical activity.

Continue reading

Pandemic of Global Physical Inactivity Costs Lives and Money

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow/Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow Prevention Research Collaboration Sydney School of Public Health The University of Sydney

Dr. Melody Ding

Ding Ding (Melody), Ph.D., MPH
NHMRC Early Career Senior Research Fellow
Sydney University Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Prevention Research Collaboration
Sydney School of Public Health
The University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Understanding the true burden of a pandemic is indispensable for informed decision making. After decades of research, we now have established knowledge about how physical inactivity contributes to pre-mature deaths and chronic diseases, but the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. Through estimating the economic burden of physical inactivity for the first time, we hope to create a business case for investing in cost-effective actions to promote physical activity at the global levels.

Continue reading

Physical Activity Important For Brain Health At Any Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tina Hoang MSPH
Staff Research Associate
Northern California Institute for Research and Education,
Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Dr. Kristine Yaffe MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology
University of California
San Francisco, CA  94121

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We assessed physical activity and TV watching in young adults over 25 years to see if there was an association with cognitive function in middle age.  Most previous studies have only considered this association in older adults. We found that both low physical activity and high TV watching over time were associated with worse cognitive function.

Continue reading

Even Low Dose Physical Activity Helpful In Reducing Mortality

Dr David Hupin CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l'Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr David Hupin

CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord
Service de Physiologie Clinique et de l’Exercice, Centre VISAS Cedex 2, France

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Hupin: Today, over 95% of the world’s population has health problems, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study published recently in The Lancet. The proportion of healthy years lost due to disease rapidly increased with age. There is no medical treatment that can influence as many diseases in a positive manner as can physical activity. It is well established that regular physical activity is an efficient strategy for successful aging. The 2008 Physical Activity guidelines for Americans recommend a minimum of 150 min of moderate-intensity (>3 MET) or 75 min of vigorous-intensity (≥6 MET) physical activity per week or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A Metabolic Equivalent or MET is a unit useful for describing the energy expenditure of a specific physical activity. However, less than 50% of older adults are able to achieve the current recommendations of physical activity. Thus, the prescription of physical activity for older adults needs to be clarified, i.e., what “dose” of physical activity is required.

Medical Research: What is the design of your study?

Dr. Hupin: Within the dynamic Department of Clinical and Exercise Physiology of University Hospital of St-Etienne, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Out of at total of 835 relevant studies, nine were suitable for analysis. These involved a total of 122, 417 participants, monitored for an average of around 10 years, during which time 18,122 died.

Continue reading

Combining Acceleration and Skin Temperature Can Improve Accuracy of Physical Activity Monitors

Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health, Public Health Informatics Group, Health Information Research Unit (HIRU), UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Shang-Ming Zhou
Senior Lecturer in Statistical Modelling and Analytics for Epidemiology and Public Health,
Public Health Informatics Group,
Health Information Research Unit (HIRU),
UKCRC DECIPHer (Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement) Centre,
College of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In medical and sport science research, body-worn accelerometers are widely used to provide objective measurements of physical activity. However, accelerometers collect data continuously even during periods of nonwear (i.e. periods when participants may not be wearing their monitor, such as during sleeping). It is important to distinguish time of sedentary behaviours (eg. watching television) from time of nonwear. The clinical consequence of misclassification of accelerometer wear and nonwear would overestimate or underestimate physical activity level, and mislead the interpretation of the relationship between physical activity and health outcomes. Automated estimation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time events is particularly desired by large cohort studies, but algorithms for this purpose are not yet standardized and their accuracy needs to be established. This study presents a robust method of classifying wear and nonwear time events under free living conditions for triaxial accelerometers which combines acceleration and surface skin temperature data.

The new findings are: Either acceleration data or skin temperature data alone is inadequate to accurately predict wear and nonwear events in some scenarios under a free living condition; This study provides a simple and efficient algorithm on use of short time periods of consecutive data blocks for accurately predicting triaxial accelerometer wear and nonwear events; Combining both types of acceleration and skin temperature data can significantly improve the accuracy of accelerometer wear and nonwear events classification in monitoring physical activity. Continue reading

Physical Activity Including Housework Linked To Better Physical and Emotional Aging

kathy-wrightMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kathy Wright, PhD, RN, GCNS-BC, PMHCNS-BC
KL2 Postdoc, Clinical Instructor 2011-13 SAMHSA Scholar
2010-12 National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence
Patricia G. Archbold Scholar
Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing
Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Wright: This study was a secondary analysis of baseline data from the After Discharge Care Management of Low Income Frail Elderly (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality grant #1 R01 HS014539-01A1). The participants were aged 65 and older enrolled during an acute care hospitalization. Each participant had at least one deficit in activities of daily living (e.g., bathing, dressing) or two deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (e.g., transportation, paying bills). The purpose of the study was to test House’s Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees in a group of low-income older adults to determine the relationships between socio-demographic factors (i.e., race, education, age, gender, income, and neighborhood poverty), health behaviors, and physical function and emotional well-being. As a part of the health behavior component, participants were interviewed and asked questions regarding the amount of physical activity they engaged in during the week.

Continue reading

Even Low-Level Physical Activity Improves Cardiac Risk

Thomas W. Buford, PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine Director, Health Promotion Center University of Florida Institute on AgingMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Thomas W. Buford, PhD
Assistant Professor, Division of Clinical Research
Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida College of Medicine
Director, Health Promotion Center
University of Florida Institute on Aging

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Buford: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from over 1000 older adults upon their entry into the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. Briefly, participants were recruited into the LIFE Study who were over 70 years of age, sedentary, and had mobility limitations. The objective of this study was to examine, at baseline prior to their participation in the study interventions, the association between daily physical activity habits and risk of major cardiovascular events (i.e. heart attack and coronary-related death). The study utilized accelerometers, devices designed to identify and quantify human movement, to measure participant’s daily activity. Predicted risk of cardiovascular events was determined using a risk score established in the Framingham Heart Study. As identified by accelerometry measures, participants spent on average 70% of their waking hours being sedentary. The major finding of the study, however, was that even extremely low-level activity was associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile. For every 25-30 minutes a participant was sedentary per day, predicted risk was 1 percent higher. Conversely, But activity identified as slightly above sedentary — which could be light housework or slow walking — was associated with higher levels of the more beneficial kind of cholesterol, HDL, in people with no history of heart disease.
Continue reading

Physical Activity in Elders Increased By Pedometers and Nursing Input

Tess Harris St George’s University of LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tess Harris
St George’s University of London

 

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Response: Physical activity is vital for both physical and mental health in older people, preventing at least 20 common health problems. Yet the majority of older people do not achieve the World Health Organisation physical activity guidelines for health of at least 150 minutes every week of at least moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity in bouts that each last at least 10 minutes. Brisk walking is a good way to achieve moderate intensity physical activity, with a low risk of harm. Pedometers can give you direct feedback on your step-count and accelerometers record both step-counts and the intensity of physical activity achieved. The PACE-Lift trial assessed whether an intervention to increase walking, comprising pedometer and accelerometer feedback, combined with physical activity consultations provided by practice nurses over a 3 month period, based on simple behaviour change techniques, could lead to sustained increases in physical activity in 60-75 year olds.

Continue reading

Physical Activity For Heart Health Doesn’t Have To Be A Burden

Dr. Miranda ArmstrongMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Miranda Armstrong
M.Phil.
Physical Activity Epidemiologist
Cancer Epidemiology Unit University of Oxford
Oxford, UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Armstrong: Physical activity has generally been associated with reduced risk of heart disease. However, there is limited evidence on the associations between the frequency and durations of various activities with stroke and blood clots, especially in middle-aged women.

This is a very large study of 1.1 million middle-aged women, which confirms the benefits of moderate activity for reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Further to this, it shows that benefits may be more wide ranging than previously thought as the risk of blood clots was also lower in women reporting moderate activity when compared to inactive women. We found little evidence to suggest that activity more frequent than a few times per week provided further benefits in relation to these diseases.

Continue reading

Primary Care Intervention Program Increased Physical Activity in Women

Molly B. Conroy MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Clinical and Translational Science University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA,MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Molly B. Conroy MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and Clinical and Translational Science
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA,

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background for the study is the fact that middle-aged women are at high risk for being physically inactive, which puts them at higher risk for heart disease, cancer, and other chronic health problems.

We compared an interventionist-led physical activity and weight loss program delivered in coordination with primary care to a booklet that women were asked to use to exercise by themselves at home. We found that women who received the interventionist-led program had significantly greater increases in physical activity at 3 months, compared to women who received booklet. At 12 months, women who received the interventionist-led program were still more active than they were before starting the program, although the difference between the 2 groups was no longer significant.

Continue reading

Twin Study Shows Physical Activity May Decrease Dementia Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Paula Iso-Markku, MD,
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, 
HUS Medical Imaging Center, 
Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki
Helsinki , Finland

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Iso-Markku : The social, financial and humane burden of the dementia is extensive as the worldwide prevalence of dementia is estimated around 35.6 million. Finding efficient prevention strategies for dementia is crucial. Within the past decade vascular risk factors have been recognized as very potential risk factors of dementia. As physical activity is known to affect vascular risk factors, it might also be a potential preventive tool against dementia. Few comprehensive epidemiological studies on physical activity in middle age and dementia occurrence later in life have been conducted.

The comprehensive Finnish Twin Study offers a unique approach to the subjects as the shared growing up environment and genes can be taken into account. The study population is extensive and a good representation of the Finnish population. In this study the association of physical activity in adulthood and dementia mortality was investigated in a 29-year follow-up.

The main finding in this study was that persistent vigorous (i.e. more strenuous than walking) physical activity was significantly associated with lower dementia mortality. The results in the paired analysis, comparing twins to co-twins, were similar but remained non-significant. The analyses of the volume of physical activity were, however, controversial.

Continue reading

Physical Activity Critical To Global World Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Philipe de Souto Barreto (PhD)

Toulouse University Hospital (CHU Toulouse)
Gérontopole of Toulouse – Head of Department: Prof Bruno Vellas

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Barreto: This study discusses about the importance of physical activity for health promotion globally. The main argument is that, since physical activity is associated to health benefits in a dose-response manner, even less than the currently recommended amounts of physical activity, i.e., 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week or equivalent, will be associated to health promotion. Therefore, from a global health perspective, it would be interesting to promote small increments in physical activity among those who are fully sedentary.

Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Dr. Barreto: The “take home message” of this article is that, regarding the associations between physical activity and health, “every little bit counts, and more is often better”.

Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Dr. Barreto: In my opinion, future research on the topic of physical activity and health promotion should focus on two main aspects: revisiting current public health guidelines on physical activity in order to confirm, refine or modify current public health messages, and increasing public awareness on sedentary behaviours, which constitutes a different concept from physical activity.

Citation:

Global health agenda on non-communicable diseases: has WHO set a smart goal for physical activity?

Philipe de Souto Barreto, researcher

 MJ 2015; 350 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h23 (Published 21 January 2015) Cite this as: BMJ 2015;350:h23

 

 

Increasing Physical Activity in a Population Requires Changing Physical Environment

MedicalResearch.com: Comments from
Virpi Kuvaja-Köllner and her team:
Project manager, teacher, M.Sc. (Health Economics), PhD Student
University of Eastern Finland
Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies
Department of Health and Social Management

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Response: As we all know insufficient physical activity (PA) is associated with an increased risk of various chronic diseases and increases in health care expenditure. However, there are some economic evaluation studies related to physical activity interventions that have proved some of those interventions can offer “good value for money”. Unfortunately, most of these studies have focused on interventions at the individual or patient group level. It is easy to notice that there is a lack of studies related to cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions at the population level. Somehow this is controversial because the need to increase physical activity in the population is urgent and the public funding for health care and other services is tighter than ever. We should remember that if we can increase physical activity among large population groups, especially among those whoare physically inactive, it might also have an impact on our healthcare costs.
Continue reading

COPD: More Physical Activity Equals Less Systemic Inflammation

Paul D. Loprinzi, PhD Center for Health Behavior Research Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management The University of Mississippi, University, MS.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Paul D. Loprinzi, PhD
Center for Health Behavior Research
Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management
The University of Mississippi, University, MS.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Loprinzi: COPD not only induces inflammation in the lung, but systemic inflammation as well.  Therefore, individuals with COPD are at an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease as a result of increased systemic inflammation.  Physical activity has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation in the general population, but the association between physical activity and systemic inflammation among those with COPD is less established.  Our study demonstrated that individuals with COPD who were more active had less systemic inflammation than those who were less active.
Continue reading

Physical Activity Less Helpful In Preventing Diabetes For Those At Greatest Genetic Risk

Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with:
Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD
Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health
University of Arizona Medical Center

 

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Klimentidis: The main finding is that the association of physical activity with type-2 diabetes risk is weakest among those who are at high genetic risk for type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, we find that this trend is stronger among women as compared to men, and that it appears to be driven mainly by genetic risk to insulin resistance, as opposed to genetic risk for reduced beta-cell function.
Continue reading

Physical Activity Did Not Reduce Incidence of Kidney Stones

Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD PhD Candidate Division of Nephrology Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Rome ItalyMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD PhD Candidate
Division of Nephrology
Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
Rome Italy


Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Ferraro: We analyzed the association between physical activity and energy intake and the risk of developing kidney stones in three large cohorts of U.S. health professionals. The 215,133 participants included did not have any history of kidney stones when follow-up began. During 20 years of follow-up, 5,355 of them developed a kidney stone. Initially, we found that participants with higher physical activity levels had a reduced risk of developing stones in two of the three cohorts. However, after accounting for a number of factors that could potentially confound the association such as age, body mass index and dietary intake, the association was no longer significant. Similarly, energy intake was not associated with a reduced risk of developing kidney stones. Continue reading

Physical Activity During School Improves Academic Achievement, Especially For Boys

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eero Haapala, MSc in Exercise Medicine, BASc PhD student
University of Eastern Finland,School of Medicine
Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology
Kuopio, Finland

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Our study is one of the first studies to investigate the different types of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic achievement in children. Our main finding was that children who were more physically active during school recess were better readers in Grades 1-3 than less active children. We also found a direct relationship between physically active school transportation, which was mainly walking and cycling, and reading skills in boys. These findings suggest that particularly physical activity within a school day benefits academic achievement and that physical activity benefit academic achievement more in boys than in girls 6-8 years of age.
Continue reading

Older Men Taking Statins Less Physically Active

MedicalResearch.com Interview with David S.H. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Pharmacy Practice College of Pharmacy Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University Portland OR, 97239MedicalResearch.com Interview with
David S.H. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmacy Practice
College of Pharmacy
Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University
Portland OR, 97239

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lee: We found that older men taking a statin were less physically active and had more sedentary behavior. They had about 37 minutes of less moderate exercise per week. For comparison, the American heart Association recommends about 40 minutes of moderate activity 3-4 times per week. We also found that those that started using a statin during the study had the largest drop in physical activity.
Continue reading

Moderate Physical Activity May Decrease Heart Disease Risk in Perimenopausal Women

Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S.            Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine Division of Adolescent Medicine The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10467MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Unab I. Khan, M.B.,B.S., M.S.  
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Family & Social Medicine
Division of Adolescent Medicine
The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore
The Pediatric Hospital for Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY 10467


MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Khan: We wanted to find factors that lead to either an increase or decrease in risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We found that in middle aged overweight and obese women, who may not have any medical problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, an increase in weight over time and the development of any of the conditions stated above, increased the risk of cardiovascular disease significantly.

On the other hand, even moderate physical activity decreased the risk of heart disease, even in the presence of the above stated conditions.
Continue reading

Physical Activity May Slow Progression From Gestational To Type 2 Diabetes

Wei Bao MD, PhD Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch Division of Intramural Population Health Research NICHD/National Institutes of Health Rockville, MD 20852MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Wei Bao MD, PhD
Postdoc fellow, Epidemiology Branch
Division of Intramural Population Health Research
NICHD/National Institutes of Health
Rockville, MD 20852

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Wei Bao: This study, to our knowledge, is the first attempt to examine the associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a high-risk population of T2DM. The main findings are:

(1) Physical activity is inversely associated with risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Each 5-metabolic equivalent hours per week increment of total physical activity, which is equivalent to 100 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity or 50 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity, was related to a 9% lower risk of T2DM; this inverse association remained significant after additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI).

(2) An increase in physical activity is associated with a lower risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who maintained their total physical activity levels, women who increased their total physical activity levels by 7.5 MET-h/wk or more (equivalent to 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activityor 75 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity) had a 47% lower risk of T2DM; the association remained significant after additional adjustment for BMI.

(3) Prolonged time spent watching TV, as a common sedentary behavior, is associated with an increased risk of progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM. Compared with women who watched TV 0 to 5 hours per week, those watched TV 6 to 10, 11 to 20, and 20 or more hours per week had 28%, 41%, and 77%, respectively, higher risk of T2DM. The association was no longer significant after additional adjustment for BMI.
Continue reading

Physical Activity Associated With Lower Risk of Breast Cancer

Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD International Prevention Research Institute Lyon, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor Mathieu Boniol PhD
International Prevention Research Institute
Lyon, France


MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. Boniol: We conducted a meta-analysis of all prospective epidemiological studies
on physical activity and risk of breast cancer. It includes 37 studies,
so covers more than 4 million women among which more than 100,000 breast
cancer were diagnosed. We showed that when comparing the most active
women (about 20% of the population) to least active women (another 20%
of the population), vigorous physical activity reduce the risk of breast
cancer by 11%. And the good news is that this decline is irrespective of
age, BMI, menopausal status, country,… It is also true for the most
aggressive breast cancer (ER-/PR-). However, we also showed that this
decline is not observed for women taking hormonal replacement therapies,
as if these treatments (which are already infamous for poor efficacy and
increasing the risk of breast cancer) would nullify any benefit from
physical activity.

Continue reading

Boys: Physical Activity and Strength Training

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Chris Fritz  BSs
PEZZ Center for Pediatric Endocrinology Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous physical activity (PA) behaviour in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase.

102 healthy school children were randomly placed in two groups. The control group continued three PE classes per week, whereas the intervention group had two out of three PE classes replaced by an individualised strength training program. At baseline there was no difference in anthropometry, body composition and PAEE between the groups. At the end of the training intervention, we found a significant increase of upper and lower body strength in the intervention group in boys and in girls. Boys significantly increased their PA by 10%. Without taking into account the energy expenditure during the strength training, the 10% PAEE increase corresponds to a weekly bike ride of 28 miles for a child of 40 kg body weight. Or in other words, an individualised school based strength training program increases energy expenditure outside the intervention by an equivalent of about 7kg of body fat corresponding to 10kg of chocolate per year.

Continue reading

Depression: Physical Activity and Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
George Mammen, PhD Candidate
Health & Exercise Psychology Unit
University of Toronto

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer:

  • 25 out of the 30 studies found PA to protect against depression; majority of these were of high methodological quality
  • Decreasing PA overtime can increase the risk of developing depression; increasing PA overtime can reduce the risk of developing depression
  • In terms of dosage, the review highlighted studies that showed even low levels, such as 20 mins of walking a day, can prevent the onset of depression. Continue reading

Risk of Hypertension and Physical Activity

MedicalResearch.com Interview
Ma, Wei
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics
School of Public Health
Shandong University
Jinan, Shandong Province, 250012 China

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an inverse dose-response association between levels of recreational physical activity and risk of hypertension. Individuals who participated in high levels of recreational physical activity had a 19% lower risk of hypertension than those who didn’t exercise much. In addition, those with moderate levels of recreational physical activity had an 11% lower risk of hypertension.

However, there was no significant association between occupational physical activity and risk of hypertension.

Continue reading

Depression: Association with Low Physical Activity, Prolonged Sitting

Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology), MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL) VICTORIA UNIVERSITYMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology),
MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth
Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing
INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL)
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: We examined the link between sitting-time and physical activity with current and future depressive symptoms in 8,950 mid aged women, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health.

Both high sitting-time and low physical activity levels were associated with higher risk of current depressive symptoms, and in combination, the risk further increased. Compared with women sitting ≤4 hours/day and meeting the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week, women who sat >7 hrs/day and who did no physical activity were three times as likely to have depressive symptoms. However, only lack of physical activity was associated with increased risk of future depressive symptoms, irrespective of sitting-time. Women who did no physical activity were 26% more likely to have future depressive symptoms than women meeting physical activity recommendations.
Continue reading