Augmented Reality Glasses to Improve Socialization Skills in Children with ASD

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dennis P. Wall, PhDAssociate ProfessorDepartments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data ScienceStanford University

Dr. Wall

Dennis P. Wall, PhD
Associate Professor
Departments of Pediatrics, Psychiatry (by courtesy) and Biomedical Data Science
Stanford University 

MedicalResearch.com: What did we already know about the potential for apps and wearables to help kids with autism improve their social skills, and how do the current study findings add to our understanding? What’s new/surprising here and why does it matter for children and families? 

Response: We have clinically tested apps/AI for diagnosis (e.g.  https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002705) in a number of studies.

This RCT is a third phase of a phased approach to establish feasibility and engagement through in-lab and at-home codesign with families with children with autism. This stepwise process is quite important to bring a wearable form of therapy running AI into the homes in a way that is clinically effective.

What’s new here, aside from being a first in the field, is the rigorous statistical approach we take with an intent-to-treat style of analysis. This approach ensures that the effect of the changes are adjusted to ensure that any significance observed is due to the treatment.  Thus, with this, it is surprising and encouraging to see an effect on the VABS socialization sub-scale. This supports the hypothesis that the intervention has a true treatment effect and increases the social acuity of the child.

With it being a home format for intervention that can operate with or without a clinical practitioner, it increases options and can help bridge gaps in access to care, such as when on waiting lists or if the care process is inconsistent.   Continue reading

No Evidence to Support the “Hispanic Paradox” of Cardiovascular Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Fatima Rodriguez, MD, MPH, FACC Assistant Professor Cardiovascular Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine

Dr. Rodriguez

Fatima Rodriguez, MD, MPH, FACC
Assistant Professor
Cardiovascular Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: The “Hispanic Paradox” is an idea based on some epidemiological observations that Hispanics have lower disease prevalence and mortality (across a wide spectrum of disease states), despite adverse risk profiles and lower socioeconomic status than their non-Hispanic white counterparts.

Our study is unique in that it includes a Hispanic population with overall high educational attainment followed longitudinally. In contrast to prior work in this area, we found no evidence in support of the Hispanic paradox for estimated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, atherosclerotic disease (as measured by CAC), or overall mortality.

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Disparities Remain But Blacks Experience Greatest All-Cause Mortality Reductions

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Katie Hastings MPH Stanford Medicine 

Kate Hastings

Katie Hastings MPH
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, California

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Heart disease has been the leading cause of death since the early 1900s, but recent data has suggested cancer will surpass heart disease in the upcoming decades. To date, this is the first study to examine the transition from heart disease to cancer mortality as the leading cause of death by U.S. county and sociodemographic characteristics using national mortality records from 2003 to 2015.

Our main findings are:

  • Epidemiologic transition is occurring earlier in high compared to low income U.S. counties, and occurs earlier for Asian Americans, Hispanics, and NHWs compared to blacks and American Indians/Alaska Natives.
  • Data may suggest that this shift arises from larger reductions in heart disease than cancer mortality over the study period, particularly in the highest income counties.
  • Continued disparities in heart disease and cancer mortality between blacks and other racial/ethnic groups, even in the highest income quintiles. While blacks continue to have the highest overall mortality than any other group, we do show this population experienced the greatest overall improvements in mortality (i.e. mortality rate reductions over time) for all-cause, heart disease, and cancer compared to all other racial/ethnic groups (except for heart disease in Hispanics). 

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Liquid Biopsy Using Circulating Tumor DNA Can Predict Treatment Response in Large B-Cell Lymphoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. David Kurtz, MD/PhD, Instructor and
Dr. Ash Alizadeh MD/PhD, Associate Professor
Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine
Stanford University Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: This work investigates the utility of circulating tumor DNA – a type of liquid biopsy – in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common blood cancer in adults.

Liquid biopsies are an emerging technology to track cancers from a simple blood draw. Here, using a cohort of over 200 patients from 6 centers across North America and Europe, we asked if circulating tumor DNA could be used to detect lymphoma in patients, and more importantly, could it be used to identify responders and non-responders.  Continue reading