Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews / 24.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew S. Lim MD MMSc FRCPC DABPN Assistant Professor and Clinician Scientist Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lim: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the result of a confluence of genetic, behavioral, and environmental risk factors.  The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is the most common and well established genetic risk factor for Alzheimer Disease.  10-20% of the US population carries the high risk APOE e4 allele, which confers up to a 30% lifetime risk of AD. Meanwhile, previous work had suggested that poor sleep may be a risk factor for AD and that APOE genotype and poor sleep may amplify each other's negative cognitive effects. We asked the question whether good sleep consolidation (i.e. sound sleep without repeated awakenings) may reduce the effect of APOE on the risk of incident AD and the burden of AD pathology.  We studied 698 individuals without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project - a longitudinal cohort study of aging and risk factors for AD.  We measured sleep consolidation using wrist-watch like devices called actigraphs, and followed participants for up to 6 years, examining them annually for the development of AD.  Autopsies were perfumed on 201 participants who died during the follow-up period and we quantified the burden of AD pathology. During the follow-up period, 98 participants developed AD.  As expected, carrying the APOE e4 allele was associated with a higher risk of AD, faster cognitive decline, and a higher burden of AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) at death. However, better sleep at baseline significantly reduced the negative impact of APOE e4 on the risk of AD, rate of cognitive decline, and burden of neurofibrillary tangle pathology. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Compliance, Mental Health Research / 18.10.2013

Professor Stefan Priebe, Dipl.-Psych., Dr. med. habil., FRCPsych Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health Services Development Queen Mary, University of LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with Professor Stefan Priebe, Dipl.-Psych., Dr. med. habil., FRCPsych Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health Services Development Queen Mary, University of London MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Offering modest financial incentives can help patients to achieve better adherence to anti-psychotic maintenance medication.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Nature / 18.10.2013

kees_jan_kanMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Kees-Jan Kan PhD Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Department of Psychological Methods, University of Amsterdam MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We asked ourselves how well theories of intelligence actually predict empirical results. To this end, we reviewed and scrutinized the predictions from intelligence theories and collected relevant results that have been published in the scientific literature over the last decades. The results pertained to intelligence test scores from thousands of subjects across the world. We found that on essential aspects the empirical results were opposite of the predictions from the mainstream theories of intelligence, in which intelligence is interpreted as a biological trait. (more…)
Author Interviews, Eating Disorders, Weight Research / 17.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Stephan  Zipfel  MD Professor of Medicine & Dean of Medical Education Head Department of Internal Medicine VI (Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy) University Medical Hospital Tuebingen President of the German College of Psychosomatic Medicine (DKPM) Co-Director of the centre for nutritional Medicine Tuebingen-Hohenheim 72076 Tuebingen / Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Zipfel: Outpatient treatment of adults with anorexia nervosa by either enhanced cognitive-behaviour therapy, focal psychodynamic therapy, or optimised treatment as usual led to relevant weight gains and a decrease in general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology during the course of treatment. These positive effects continued beyond treatment until 12-month follow-up. Most patients completed treatment and the acceptance of both specific therapy approaches was high among both patients and therapists. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Memory / 11.10.2013

Prof. Timothy Salthouse Brown-Forman Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Timothy Salthouse Brown-Forman Professor of Psychology Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400 MedicalResearch.com: What prompted this work? Prof. Salthouse: I think it is noteworthy that the research originated as an undergraduate project by Arielle Mandell. Ms. Mandell was supported by a University of Virginia Harrison Undergraduate Research Award while she was doing the research, and a report of the research served as her Distinguished Major Thesis. The research was prompted by the observation that according to self-reports, tip-of-the-tongue experiences occur more and more frequently with increased age, and often seem to be associated with concerns about memory decline and possibly impending dementia. We wondered
  1. 1) whether these self-reports are valid, and
  2. 2) if they are valid, do they truly indicate age-related failures of the type of memory used in the diagnosis of dementia.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Genetic Research, Memory / 11.10.2013

Dr. Rebecca Todd Assistant Professor University of British Columbia Department of Psychology Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability 4342A-2260 West Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Rebecca Todd Assistant Professor University of British Columbia Department of Psychology Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability 4342A-2260 West Mall Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: What we found, in essence, is that some individuals are genetically predisposed to see the world more darkly than others. We find that a common gene variant is linked to perceiving emotional events --especially negative ones --¬ more vividly than others. This gene variant has been previously linked (by other researchers) to emotional memory and the likelihood of experiencing intrusive, or “flashback” memories following traumatic experience. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults this enhanced emotional memory may be because individuals are more likely to perceive what’s emotionally relevant in the first place. We've all heard of rose colored glasses, but this is more like gene-colored glasses, tinted a bit darkly. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 09.10.2013

Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, OslMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elisabeth Jeppesen MPH, PhD-fellow National Resource Center for Late Effects after Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology, Oslo University, Hospital, The Norwegian Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway mobil +47 951 05271 
Wisit: Ullernchaussen 70 (Radiumhospitalet) www.oslo-universitetssykehus.no MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Answer: Each year a considerable number of parents with children younger than 18 years of age are affected by cancer in a parent. Cancer in one of the parents might represent a potentially traumatic event and thereby may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems in the offspring. So far, teenagers’ psychosocial responses to parental cancer have only been studied to a limited extent in controlled trials. Using a trauma theory perspective many studies have shown significant direct associations between parental cancer and psychosocial problems in teenagers. However, the literature also indicates that most children and teenagers have normal stress reactions to such events. In order to identify the need for eventual prevention and intervention among teenagers exposed to such a stressor, we need more empirical knowledge of their psychosocial situation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Johns Hopkins, Mental Health Research / 07.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Seth S. Martin, MD Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital 600 North Wolfe Street Baltimore, Maryland 21287 Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore, MD 21287. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Martin: Our systematic review identified 16 studies for qualitative synthesis and 11 for quantitative synthesis. In individuals without baseline cognitive dysfunction, statins did not adversely affect memory when used in the short-term (<1 year). Long-term cognition studies including 23,433 patients with a mean exposure duration of 3 to 24.9 years showed a 29% relative reduction in incident dementia related to statin use (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.82) and a 2% absolute risk reduction (number needed to treat for 6.2 years: 50). (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Mental Health Research / 04.10.2013

Shu-Sen Chang, MD, MSc, PhD Research Assistant Professor HKJC Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention The University of Hong Kong 2/F, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Building for Interdisciplinary Research, 5 Sassoon Road Pokfulam, Hong KongMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shu-Sen Chang, MD, MSc, PhD Research Assistant Professor HKJC Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention The University of Hong Kong 2/F, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Building for Interdisciplinary Research, 5 Sassoon Road Pokfulam, Hong Kong MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chang: The study shows a marked increase in suicide in 2009 following the 2008 global economic crisis, particularly in men in the 27 European and 18 American countries included in the study. There were estimated approximately 5000 excess suicides across all 54 study countries in 2009. The largest increase in Europe was seen in 15-24 year old men and in 45-64 year old men in America. (more…)
ADHD, Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 04.10.2013

Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Froehlich: In a national sample of 2 to 5 year olds, the likelihood of psychotropic prescription peaked in the mid-2000s (at 1.5%), then stabilized in the late 2000s (to 1.0%). Increased psychotropic use in boys, white children, and those lacking private health insurance was documented. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews / 03.10.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Keiichi Yamamoto, MD, PhD Department of Geriatric Medicine and Neurology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine Osaka, Japan. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Aβ is normally bound to and transported by albumin in blood. We therefore hypothesized that decreased blood levels of Albumin-Aβ complexes may be associated with decreased Aβ removal from brain to blood, resulting in Aβ accumulation in the brain. This is the first study demonstrated that decreased serum level of albumin-Aβ complexes was strongly associated with a higher prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This association was independent of age, sex, and ApoE4 allele. In addition, decreased serum level of albumin-Aβ complexes was correlated with decreased levels of Aβ42 in the CSF and increased levels of p-tau in the CSF, findings that have been shown to be associated with specific neuropathologic findings and AD progression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, PNAS / 02.10.2013

Agnieszka Anna Tymula Lecturer (Assistant Professor) School of Economics The University of Sydney NSW 2006, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Agnieszka Anna Tymula Lecturer (Assistant Professor) School of Economics The University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that individual risk preferences as well as consistency and rationality in choice change with age. Just like cognitive abilities, the ability to make consistent and rational decisions considerably declines in older adulthood. Tolerance to risk in the domain of gains follows an inverted U-shaped pattern along the life span, with older adults (65+ y. o.) and adolescents being more risk averse than young or midlife adults. Interestingly, in the domain of losses, older adults are willing to accept significantly more risks than adolescents, young and midlife adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, PLoS / 02.10.2013

Professor of Neuroscience Programme Director for BSc and MSci Pharmacology degrees School of Physiology & Pharmacology Medical and Veterinary Sciences University Walk University of Bristol Bristol, BS8 1TD.Neil V. Marrion, PhD Professor of Neuroscience Programme Director for BSc and MSci Pharmacology degrees School of Physiology & Pharmacology Medical and Veterinary Sciences University Walk University of Bristol Bristol, BS8 1TD. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Marrion: We tested pravastatin and atorvostatin (two commonly prescribed statins) in rat learning and memory models.  Rats were treated daily with pravastatin (brand name - Pravachol) or atorvostatin (brand name - Lipitor) for 18 days. The rodents were tested in a simple learning task before, during and after treatment, where they had to learn where to find a food reward. On the last day of treatment and following one week withdrawal, the rats were also tested in a task which measures their ability to recognise a previously encountered object (recognition memory). The study’s findings showed that pravastatin tended to impair learning over the last few days of treatment although this effect was fully reversed once treatment ceased. However, in the novel object discrimination task, pravastatin impaired object recognition memory.  While no effects were observed for atorvostatin in either task. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues / 30.09.2013

Teppo Särkämö PhD Institute of Behavioural Sciences PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 1A), 363 FI-00014, HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO FinlandMedicalResearch.com: Teppo Särkämö PhD Institute of Behavioural Sciences PL 9 (Siltavuorenpenger 1A), 363 FI-00014, HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that caregiver-implemented musical leisure activities, such as singing and music listening, are beneficial for elderly persons with mild-moderate dementia (PWD). Compared to standard care, regular singing and music listening improved mood, orientation level, episodic memory and to a lesser extent, also attention and executive function and general cognition. Singing also enhanced verbal working memory and caregiver well-being, whereas music listening had a positive effect on quality of life. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues / 22.09.2013

Argonde van Harten From the Alzheimer Center School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Argonde van Harten From the Alzheimer Center School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) predicted cognitive decline in patients with subjective complaints. These patients have cognitive complaints, but are cognitively normal at baseline. Preclinical AD predicted decline in memory performance, executive functions and global cognition over time. Most patients, however, had no evidence of preclinical AD and their cogntive functions generally remained stable over two years. Their memory performance improved. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Mayo Clinic, Parkinson's, PLoS / 19.09.2013

Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research Division of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW Rochester, MN 55905MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Michelle M. Mielke, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences Research Division of Epidemiology Mayo Clinic 200 First Street SW Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mielke: Among Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, plasma levels of ceramides and monohexylceramides were higher in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia compared to patients who were cognitively normal.  Levels of these lipids were also higher in the combined group of PD patients compared to non-PD controls but the number of controls were small. (more…)
CMAJ, Cognitive Issues, General Medicine, Hospital Readmissions, Outcomes & Safety / 19.09.2013

Mark W. Ketterer, PhD, ABPP Senior Bioscientific Staff Henry Ford Hospital/A2 Detroit, MI 48202 Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences Department of Psychiatry Wayne State UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark W. Ketterer, PhD, ABPP Senior Bioscientific Staff Henry Ford Hospital/A2 Detroit, MI 48202 Clinical Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences Department of Psychiatry Wayne State University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study: Dr. Ketterer:  A survey of 84 patients admitted to Henry Ford Hospital found 54% to have Moderate-Severe Cognitive Impairment (CI). (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, CMAJ, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Parkinson's / 18.09.2013

Rodolfo Savica, MD, MSc Department of Neurology, College of Medicine Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rodolfo Savica, MD, MSc Department of Neurology, College of Medicine Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Savica: This study is the first in North America to explore the incidence of DLB and PDD in a population based sample. We found that the overall incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), considered the second leading cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer`s disease, is lower than that of Parkinson`s disease (PD), increases steeply with age, and is markedly higher in men than in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cognitive Issues, Diabetes, Genetic Research / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ramit Ravona-Springer M.D., Psychiatrist Director of Memory Clinic, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In a cohort of elderly, cognitively normal type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects, those with Haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype present lower cognitive performance compared to Hp 2 carriers (Hp 1-2 and Hp 2-2). The contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to cognition was significantly higher in subjects with Hp1-1 genotype compared to Hp 2 carriers. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Memory, Methamphetamine, Scripps / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ph.D., Neurobiology & Behavior and Center for the Neurobiology of Learning & Memory (2005), University of California, Irvine, CaliforniaCourtney A. Miller, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Metabolism & Aging Department of Neuroscience The Scripps Research Institute Jupiter, FL 33458 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Miller: The relapse rate for drug abusers, smokers and alcoholics is high because abstinence is so difficult. A major factor is the craving that drug associations can trigger. These range from seeing the neighborhood where someone used to buy, in the case of illicit drugs, to social drinking for a smoker. We’ve found a way to disrupt these drug-associated memories without affecting other, more benign memories. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Mental Health Research / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jean-Pierre Le Floch, MD Diabetology-Endocrinology Villecresnes Medical Hospital 94440 Villecresnes MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: The main finding of the study is the association between classical macrovascular complications of diabetes and impaired scores of five geriatric scale scores exploring cognition, activities of daily life, instrumental activities, mood and nutrition. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 10.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ricardo E. Carrión, PhD Division of Psychiatry Research The Zucker Hillside Hospital, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New YorkCenter for Psychiatric Neuroscience, The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, New York MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study: Answer: Reduced neurocognition, poor functioning, and other behavioral symptoms at baseline were associated with an increased risk of long-term social difficulties and school/work problems in adolescents and young adults at high clinical risk for psychosis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, JAMA, Mental Health Research / 30.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arif Khan, MD Medical Director, Northwest Clinical Research Center Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry Duke University Medical Center and Christine Khan, Psychiatric Nurse 1951 – 152nd  Place NE Northwest Clinical Research Center Bellevue, WA 98007 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study?
  1. The original idea set in early 20th century that psychiatric patients discharged from mental hospitals had a shortened life span or faced early death was supported by this analysis of psychiatric patients participating in research trials for new medications.  There was no increased risk of early death or shortened life span for participating in these research clinical trials. 
  2. Life span shortening or increased risk of early death is highest among patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with major mood disorders such as Bipolar Mood Disorder and Major Depression. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA / 30.08.2013

Ekaterina Rogaeva, PhD Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaDepartment of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCambridge Institute for Medical Research and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, EnglandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ekaterina Rogaeva, PhD Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Tanz Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaDepartment of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCambridge Institute for Medical Research and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We tested the hypothesis that late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) might be in part explained by the homozygosity of unknown loci. In a genome-wide study of a Caribbean Hispanic population with noticeable inbreeding and high risk of AD we assessed the presence of long runs of homozygosity (ROHs) – regions where the alleles inherited from both parents are identical. Our results suggest the existence of recessive AD loci, since the mean length of the ROH per person was significantly longer in AD cases versus controls, and this association was stronger in familial AD. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Exercise - Fitness / 30.08.2013

Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology), MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL) VICTORIA UNIVERSITYMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jannique van Uffelen, PhD, MSc (epidemiology), MSc (human movement sciences), BHealth Senior Research Fellow Active Ageing INSTITUTE OF SPORT, EXERCISE & ACTIVE LIVING (ISEAL) VICTORIA UNIVERSITY MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We examined the link between sitting-time and physical activity with current and future depressive symptoms in 8,950 mid aged women, who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Both high sitting-time and low physical activity levels were associated with higher risk of current depressive symptoms, and in combination, the risk further increased. Compared with women sitting ≤4 hours/day and meeting the physical activity recommendations of at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity per week, women who sat >7 hrs/day and who did no physical activity were three times as likely to have depressive symptoms. However, only lack of physical activity was associated with increased risk of future depressive symptoms, irrespective of sitting-time. Women who did no physical activity were 26% more likely to have future depressive symptoms than women meeting physical activity recommendations. (more…)
Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Depression / 27.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.D., Ph.D., EPC Postdoctoral Associate Department of Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine The Florida State University 1115 W Call Street BMS 2300-24 & The Family Institute Behavioral Cardiology Laboratory Longmire 301 Tallahassee, FL 32306 MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The findings of our study were the following: (1) The low frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability (LFSBP;  a marker of sympathovagal tone) was a stronger predictor of depressive symptoms than conventional measures of cardiovascular functioning such as laboratory measurement of blood pressure and heart rate variability as well as home based ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (2) Depressive symptoms were associated with a blunted LFSBP response to sympathetic stimulation via cold pressor test; and (3) Participants with acute depression (a score of ≥16 using the CES-D scale) had higher LFSBP than those with normal depressive symptom scores.  These findings suggest that depressive symptoms evoke alterations in vascular sympathetic activity, and more importantly, this alteration is occurs early in the progression of the disease.  This is fascinating owing to the fact that we have documented a common pathway of disease between depression and cardiovascular diseases. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Depression / 27.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David A Richards, PhD Professor of Mental Health Services Research and NIHR Senior Investigator University of Exeter Medical School Sir Henry Wellcome Building University of Exeter Washington Singer Building The Queen’s Drive Exeter EX4 4QQ United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that collaborative care improves depression immediately after treatment compared to usual care, has effects that persist to 12 month follow-up and is preferred bypatients over usual care. This difference in effect equated to a standardized effect size of 0.26 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.46). More participants receiving collaborative care than those receiving usual care met criteria for recovery (odds ratio 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.29); number needed to treat=8.4) and response (1.77 (1.22 to 2.58); 7.8 at 4 months. At 12 months follow up more participants in collaborative care than those in usual care met criteria for recovery (odds ratio 1.88 (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.75); number needed to treat=6.5) and response (1.73 (1.22 to 2.44); 7.3. Collaborative care is as effective in the UK healthcare system—an example of an integrated health system with a well developed primary care sector—as in the US. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, UCSF / 23.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Vanja Douglas, MD Sara & Evan Williams Foundation Endowed Neurohospitalist Chair Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology UCSF Department of Neurology Neurology Clerkship Director Editor in Chief, The NeurohospitalistVanja Douglas, MD Sara & Evan Williams Foundation Endowed Neurohospitalist Chair Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology UCSF Department of Neurology Neurology Clerkship Director Editor in Chief, The Neurohospitalist MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study found that a simple 2-minute assessment performed at the time of hospital admission can accurately predict an adult medical inpatient's risk of developing delirium during that hospitalization. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, PLoS / 23.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brian D. Glass Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, United Kingdom Bradley C. Love Department of Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We had 72 non-gaming participants play 40 hours of video games over 6 to 8 weeks. We tested them on psychological tests before and after. The participants either played The Sims (a life simulator game), or one of two versions of StarCraft (a real-time strategy game) -- one which had a higher level of complexity. We found that the StarCraft players (especially on the higher complexity version) performed better on specifically the psychological tasks which tested cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is the ability to adapt to a changing environment by keeping multiple things in mind and switch between tasks effectively. This sort of ability is considered a higher level psychological ability because it requires strategic thinking and creativity. (more…)