Author Interviews, Autism, Environmental Risks, Fish, OBGYNE, Toxin Research / 23.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Fish” by Dhruvaraj S is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Caroline M Taylor Wellcome Trust Research Fellow Centre for Child and Adolescent Health Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Mercury is a toxic metal that is widespread in the environment. In pregnancy, mercury in the mother’ bloodstream is transferred through the placenta to the fetus, where is can affect development of the nervous system. Mercury from vaccines has been the focus of attention particularly in regard to a link with autism in children. However, the amount of mercury used in the vaccines is small in comparison with mercury from the diet and atmospheric pollution, and in the EU at least, childhood vaccines no longer contain this preservative. The fear that mercury is linked to autism has persisted, despite increasing evidence that this is not the case. The aim of our study was to look at mercury from the diet rather than vaccines – specifically from fish – in pregnant women. We measured the women’s mercury levels in their blood and asked them about how much fish they ate. We then followed up their children for 9 years and recorded how many of them had autism diagnosed within that time. We also measured how many of them had autist traits by measuring their social and communication difficulties.  The data were part of the Children of the 90s study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children – ALSPAC), which is based in Bristol, UK.
Allergies, Author Interviews, Fish, Imperial College, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Probiotics / 02.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Robert Boyle, Reader in Paediatric Allergy Department of Medicine Imperial College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Diet in early life may influence whether or not an infant develops allergies or autoimmune disease. We undertook a project for the UK Food Standards Agency to evaluate the evidence for this. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?  Response: We found that a probiotic supplement during the last 2-4 weeks of pregnancy and during breastfeeding may reduce an infant’s chances of developing eczema; and that omega-3 fatty acid supplements taken from the middle of pregnancy (20 weeks gestation) through the first few months of breastfeeding may reduce an infant’s chances of developing food allergy. We also found links between longer duration of breastfeeding and improved infant health, but for most other variations in diet during pregnancy or infancy we did not find evidence for a link with allergies or autoimmune disease.
Asthma, Author Interviews, Fish, NEJM, Pediatrics / 06.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30990" align="alignleft" width="133"]Hans Bisgaard, M.D., D.M.Sc. COPSAC, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark Dr. Hans Bisgaard[/caption] Hans Bisgaard, M.D., D.M.Sc. COPSAC, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Asthma and lower respiratory infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations. Thus, having low cost, effective, safe options for prevention could have important implications for both clinical practice and public health. The increased use of vegetable oils in cooking and of grain in the feeding of livestock has resulted in an increase in the intake of n−6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in the intake of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) — eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n–3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n–3, DHA) — found in cold-water fish. N3-LCPUFAs are known to have immune-modulatory effects, and observational studies have suggested an association between a diet that is deficient in n−3 LCPUFA during pregnancy and an increased risk of asthma and wheezing disorders in offspring. Only a few randomized, controlled trials of n−3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy have been performed and these have generally been underpowered and produced ambiguous results. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of n−3 LCPUFA supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy in a total of 736 Danish women to assess the effect on the risk of persistent wheeze and asthma in offspring. The clinical follow-up rate among children was 96% (N=664) by the end of the 3 years double-blind period and 93% (N=647) after an additional follow-up to age 5 years.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Depression, Fish / 12.09.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Fang Li Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Fish, rich in multiple beneficial nutrients, including  n-3 polyunsaturated fattyacids, high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals, have been hypothesized to protect against chronic diseases generally , such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Depression is a common mental health disorder,with an estimated 350 million people affected. We hypothesis that fish consumption may be benefical in depression prevention. Several epidemiological studies have investigated associations between fish intake and depression risk, but the findings are inconsistent. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis to expect to find this association. A total of 26 studies involving 150 278 participants were included in the present meta-analysis.The pooled relative risk of depression for the highest versus lowest consumption of fish was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.93). The findings remained significant in the cohort studies.This meta-analysis indicates that high-fish consumption can reduce the risk of depression.
Author Interviews, Fish, General Medicine, Hearing Loss / 11.09.2014

Sharon G. Curhan, MD, ScM Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon G. Curhan, MD, ScM Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Curhan: We followed more than 65,000 women who were participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II over 18 years and found that eating 2 or more servings of fish per week was associated with a lower risk of hearing loss. For example, after adjusting for potential confounders in multivariable analyses, in comparison with women who rarely or never ate fish, women who consumed 2 or more servings of fish per week had a 20% lower risk of hearing loss. Eating any type of fish (tuna, dark fish, light fish or shellfish) tended to be associated with lower risk. Also, we found that higher intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was inversely associated with risk. For example, in comparison with women with the lowest intake, women with the highest intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs had a 22% lower risk of hearing loss.
Anesthesiology, Fish, PLoS, Toxin Research / 20.08.2014

Prof. Peter B. Marko Department of Biology University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HawaiiMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Peter B. Marko Department of Biology University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study Prof. Marko: The main finding of the study was that species substitutions and fishery stock substitutions together obscure a complex pattern of mercury contamination in Chilean sea bass (or Patagonian toothfish) that can put consumers unknowingly at risk of ingesting greater levels of mercury than the labeling would suggest.  Although it is well appreciated that mercury levels vary dramatically among different species of fish, and that species substitutions have the potential to expose consumers to unwanted mercury, our study shows that for Chilean sea bass, fish mislabeled as to their country or region of origin (but labeled as the correct species) have a high potential to expose consumers to unexpectedly high levels of mercury.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Fish / 15.01.2014

Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition Kuopio, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition Kuopio, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Virtanen: The main finding was that serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration, an objective biomarker of fish and long-chain omega-3 PUFA intake, was associated with a lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes during the average follow-up of 19.3 years in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland. The risk was 33% lower in the highest vs. the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. In contrast, hair mercury, a marker for long-term exposure to mercury, was not associated with the risk. Previously in this study population, high hair mercury content has been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and attenuation of the beneficial impact of long-chain omega-3 PUFA on the risk. Also, we did not find associations with the intermediate-chain length omega-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid, either, which is a plant-based omega-3 PUFA. This suggests that the findings were specific to the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs from fish.
Author Interviews, Fish, General Medicine, Rheumatology / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniela Di Giuseppe Division of Nutritional Epidemiology Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm 171 77, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Women whose long-term intake of omega 3 PUFAs exceeded 0.21 g a day, equivalent to at least one serving of fatty fish or four servings of lean fish a week, had half the risk (52% lower) of rheumatoid arthritis of women who consumed less.
Author Interviews, Duke, Fish, Nutrition, Pain Research / 18.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ru-Rong Ji, PhD Professor, Chief of Pain Research Department of Anesthesiology and Neurobiology Duke University Medical Center Box DUMC 3094, Durham , NC 27710 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found the pro-resolution lipid mediator protectin D1 (PD1), derived from the fish oil DHA, can effectively prevent nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. This treatment can also prevent nerve injury-induced neuroinflammation in the spinal cord (such as glial activation and expression of cytokines and chemokines, e.g., IL-1b, CCL2). These cytokines and chemokines are known to elicit pain.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Fish, Nutrition / 28.06.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Duo Li (PhD, MSc, BMed) Co-Editor, Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition Associate Editor, Journal of Nutrigenetics & Nutrigenomics Professor of Nutrition Dept. of Food Science & Nutrition Zhejiang University 866 Yu-Hang-Tang Road Hangzhou 310058, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Li: The main finding is that intake marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from both fish and fish oil lower the risk of breast cancer. Women with a high intake of marine n-3 PUFAs had a 14-percent reduction in risk of breast cancer compared with those who had a low intake. Every 0.1 g increase in marine n-3 PUFA per day was linked to a five-percent reduction in breast cancer risk.