It’s Not Just Avoiding Red Meat, It’s the Substitute Diet That Influences Heart Health

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Marta Guasch-Ferre, PhD Research Scientist, Dept of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health Instructor of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, 02115

Dr. Guasch-Ferré

Marta Guasch-Ferre, PhD
Research Scientist, Dept of Nutrition
Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health
Instructor of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicin
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA, 02115
 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Previous findings from randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of red meat on cardiovascular disease risk factors have been inconsistent.

But our new study, which makes specific comparisons between diets high in red meat versus diets high in other types of foods, shows that substituting red meat with high-quality protein sources lead to more favorable changes in cardiovascular risk factors. That is, to properly understand the health effects of red meat, it’s important to pay attention to the comparison diet. People do not simply eat more or less meat – it will almost always be in substitution with other foods. 

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Stroke: Experimental Antiplatelet Antibody Only Attacks Clots, Without Increasing Bleeding Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Martine Jandrot-Perrus MD, PhD.Emeritus Research ProfessorInserm University Paris DiderotActicor BiotechHôpital BichatFrance

Dr. Jandrot-Perrus


Martine Jandrot-Perrus MD, PhD.
Emeritus Research Professor
Inserm University Paris Diderot
Acticor Biotech
Hôpital Bichat
France 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Blood platelets are key actors in thrombosis a leading cause of global mortality estimated to account for 1 in 4 death worldwide in 2010.

Thrombosis is associated with cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, stroke, lower limb ischemia, venous thromboembolism), and with numerous pathologies such as cancer, infections or inflammatory diseases. Currently available antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone of therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. However, these drugs all carry an inherent risk of bleeding that restricts their use in sensitive populations and when arterial thrombosis occurs in the cerebral territory. At present the only acute treatment option available for ischemic stroke consists in revascularization by thrombolysis, and/or mechanical thrombectomy. But the number of patients eligible to these treatments is low (» 15% of all patients) and the success rate does not exceed 50%. The responsibility of platelets in the failure for thrombolysis / thrombectomy to restore vascular patency is strongly suspected.

There is thus a clear medical need for new antiplatelet drugs with an improved safety profile. We set out to develop ACT017, a novel, first in class, therapeutic antibody to platelet glycoprotein VI with potent and selective antiplatelet effects. The interest of GPVI resides in the fact that it’s a receptor involved in the development of occlusive thrombi but that it is not strictly required for physiological hemostasis.
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Hands-Only CPR Increases Bystander Participation and Survival After Cardiac Arrest

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hands only CPR AHA image

Hands only CPR
AHA image

Gabriel Riva, Graduate Student
Department of Medicine, Solna (MedS),
Karolinka Institute

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: During the last decade there has been a gradual adoption of compression-only CPR, as an option to conventional CPR with chest compressions and rescue breaths, in international CPR guidelines. The simplified technique is recommended for bystanders who are untrained and in “telephone assisted CPR”. One of the reasons was the assumption that more people would actually do CPR with the simplified technique.  We could in this nationwide study running over 3 guideline periods demonstrate a 6-fold higher proportion of patients receiving compression-only CPR and a concomitant almost doubled rate of CPR before emergency medical services arrival over time. This very large increase in simplified CPR was surprising to us, especially considering there has never been any public campaigns promoting compression-only CPR in Sweden and training still include compressions and ventilations.  Continue reading

Better Outcomes At Stroke Centers That Do More Clot Removals

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sunil A. Sheth, MD Department of Neurology UT Health McGovern School of Medicine Houston, TX 77030

Dr. Sheth

Sunil A. Sheth, MD
Department of Neurology
McGovern Medical School at UTHealth
Houston, TX 77030

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: There is no country in the world where the absolute number of people living with or died from stroke has declined between 1990 and 2013. In the US, approximately 795,000 people experience a stroke each year with nearly 90% being acute ischemic stroke (AIS), which remains the leading cause of adult disability in the US.

In 2015 landmark clinical trials demonstrated that endovascular stroke treatments (EST) for patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) leads to dramatic improvements in patient outcomes. However, in the wake of these results, stroke systems of care around the globe are now faced with the daunting task of ensuring that patients with AIS have access to appropriate screening and therapy.

The evidence of benefit for endovascular stroke that emerged from these trials was derived from treatments rendered almost exclusively at high volume stroke centers, with specialized neuro-imaging, neuro-intensive care, neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-nursing. However, since the publication and adoption of these findings into guidelines, it has become well-established that the likelihood of good neurologic outcome for these patients remains dependent on minimizing delays in treatment. Even 15-minute delays in endovascular reperfusion have been associated with quantifiable decrements in clinical outcomes. As such, there has been an increase in demand for the procedure as well as calls for the dissemination of the treatment away from tertiary-care referral centers into the community, to avoid the costly delays associated with inter-hospital transfer (IHT). On the other hand, transferring endovascular stroke patients to higher volume centers has also been associated with reduced mortality. In the absence of clear data on the relative efficacy of EST in lower volume centers, this lack of clarity on the optimal distribution of endovascular stroke resources had led to considerable confusion, with stroke center certifying agencies such as The Joint Commission initially requiring physician and hospital minimal EST volume requirements for certification, and then very recently revoking and then reinstating that criterion.

Given the need to structure stroke systems of care in the modern endovascular stroke era, as well as the poorly characterized effect on EST outcomes away from tertiary-care referral centers, understanding the trends in treatment patterns as well as outcomes in relation to treatment volumes and IHT is of vital importance. The study described here provides for the first time large-scale data on the utilization of the procedure as well as the finding that its outcomes are directly tied to annual volumes.

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Value of Postconditioning after Heart Attack May Be Seen only on Long Term Followup

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

JAY H. Traverse, MD, FACC, FAHA Director of Research, Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation Associate Professor of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division University of Minnesota School of Medicine

Dr. Traverse

JAY H. Traverse, MD, FACC, FAHA
Director of Research
Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation
Associate Professor of Medicine
Cardiovascular Division
University of Minnesota School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Reperfusion injury may contribute a significant amount to final infarct size in setting of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Several studies from Europe and Asia have suggested that modifying reperfusion with an angioplasty balloon of an occluded artery called postconditioning can reduce infarct size. However, not all studies show a benefit.

We hypothesized that patient selection of STEMI patients could contribute to these inconsistent findings so we performed the first postconditioning study in the US sponsored by the NIH using the strictest enrollment criteria of any study to minimize factors that influence infarct size (ischemic time, collaterals, pre-infarction angina, TIMI 0 flow) designed to maximize the benefit of postconditioning to see if it can actually reduce infarct size.

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Millions of Cardiovascular Events Preventable If New Lower Blood Pressure Guidelines Adopted

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Adam Bress, Pharm.D Department of Population Health Sciences School of Medicine University of Utah

Dr. Bress

Adam Bress, Pharm.D
Department of Population Health Sciences
School of Medicine
University of Utah

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

o   The background here is that the new 2017 ACC/AHA BP guidelines lowered the threshold for antihypertensive medication initiation and intensification from <140 mmHg in most patients to <130 mm Hg.

o   We used contemporary, population-based studies of US adults to estimate the potential population health impact of achieving and maintaining the lower treatment targets recommended in the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guidelines compared to previous guidelines.

o   We found that achieving and maintain the lower thresholds recommended in the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guidelines over 10 years would:

  • Prevent 3.0 million CVD events compared to currently blood pressure and treatment levels
  • Prevent 0.5 million more events compared to achieving and maintain JNC7 goals
  • Prevent 1.4 million more events compared to achieving and maintain JNC7 goals

o   We estimated the size of the population health impact of achieving and maintaining the lower blood pressure treatment targets in the 2017 ACC/AHA BP guidelines compared to previous guidelines.

  • Achieving and maintaining the lower blood pressure thresholds for antihypertensive medication initiation and titration by the 2017 guidelines, are projected to prevent ~20% and ~90% more CVD events over ten years compared to achieving and maintaining JNC7 or JNC8 goals respectively.

o   Although we estimated more adverse events with the lower treatment goal, what our analysis found is that the benefits of achieving and maintaining the 2017 high blood pressure treatment recommendations far outweighs the risks. Many adverse events from high blood pressure treatment can be managed medically – and the lower threshold for treatment could potentially help millions of Americans lower their chances of developing heart disease or dying from heart attacks, strokes and other cardiovascular events, Continue reading