Genetic Link Between Corneal Thickness and Risk of Glaucoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eldon E. Geisert, PhD Professor of Ophthalmology Emory School of Medicine

Dr. Geisert

Eldon E. Geisert, PhD
Professor of Ophthalmology
Emory School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the late 1990s a group of doctors began a study of glaucoma patients to determine if there were phenotypes that are predictive for developing glaucoma.

In this Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) one of the highly correlated ocular traits was central corneal thickness (CCT). The early clinical studies found that people with thinner corneas were at a higher risk of developing glaucoma. In two large studies, examining thousands of people a number of genes were identified that were risk factors for glaucoma or that controlled CCT in humans. In both cases the identified genes accounted for less than 10% of the genetic risk for glaucoma and less than for 10% of the genetic control for CCT. There was little data linking the genetic control of CCT to the glaucoma risk.

Our group has taken an indirect approach to the question, using well-defined mouse genetic system to identify genes modulating CCT and then interrogating human glaucoma data to determine if these genes are associated with glaucoma risk.   Continue reading

Aravind Eye Care System Reduces Waste and Carbon Footprint From Cataract Surgeries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Cassandra Thiel, PhD Assistant Professor in the Departments of Population Health and Opthamology at NYU Langone Health, and Assistant Professor at NYU Wagner and NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Dr. Thiel

Cassandra Thiel, PhD
Assistant Professor in the Departments of Population Health and Opthamology at NYU Langone Health, and Assistant Professor at NYU Wagner and
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Everyone is concerned about the health impacts of climate change, from the United Nations to the Lancet. While other industries are trying to monitor and minimize their environmental footprint, healthcare services have been largely overlooked. Yet, the US healthcare sector emits 10% of the US’s total greenhouse gases.

Cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the world. In the US, these surgeries generate large quantities of waste due to the use of single-use, disposable materials and supplies. However, at Aravind Eye Care System in southern India, the outcomes for this procedure are the same as in the US, but the materials they use are mostly reusable. This study assessed the environmental footprint of Aravind’s surgical process, to determine how their process design and material selection affected their emissions.

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Majority of Cataract Surgeries Now Performed in Ambulatory Centers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

cataract-eye-wikipedia Cataract in Human Eye  author Rakesh Ahuja, MD

Cataract in Human Eye

Brian C. Stagg, MD
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
University of Michigan Medical School
National Clinician Scholars Program
University of Michigan Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation

Joshua D. Stein, MD, MS
Associate Professor
University of Michigan
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
Director, Center for Eye Policy and Innovation
Ann Arbor 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Cataract surgery is one of the most common surgeries in the US. It is typically performed at either hospital outpatient departments (HOPDs) or ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). ASCs are cheaper and more efficient, but some people believe that HOPDs may be safer for people with co-morbid medical conditions.

We conducted this study to evaluate how the use of ambulatory surgery centers for cataract and other ocular surgeries has changed since 2001. We also wanted to see what factors influenced whether or not a patient had cataract surgery at an ASC (versus a HOPD), and to compare ASC use for cataract surgery with ASC use for other common eye surgeries (glaucoma, cornea, retina, strabismus).

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miLOOP Uses Minimal Energy To Encapsulate and Remove Cataracts

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sean Ianchulev, MD MPH Chief Medical Officer VP of Medical Affairs and Business Development Transcend Medical 

Dr. Ianchulev

Sean Ianchulev, MD MPH
Chief Medical Officer
VP of Medical Affairs and Business Development
Transcend Medical 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Similar to MIGS stent technology for glaucoma, MiLOOP is a an application of micro-interventional technology for cataract surgery – allows the fragmentation of the lens with simple micro-interventional pen-like device which does not require complex, capital-intense phaco-emulsification…also it does not require vibrational energy

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

 Iantech introduces a micro-­interventional devices designed to deliver energy-­free endocapsular lens fragmentationResponse: That after 50 years of conventional phacoemulsification cataract technology, new breakthrough micro-interventional approaches are on the horizon.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: Future studies will evaluate whether micro-interventional approaches for cataract surgery can replace phacoemulsification equipment altogether.

Any disclosures?

I am the founder and Chairman of the company.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation: Ianchulev S. Microinterventional cataract surgery. Presented at American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting; Nov. 11-14, 2017; New Orleans. 

 

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

 

 

 

 

 

Cataract Surgery Linked To Improved Health and Survival, As Well As Sight

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anne L. Coleman, MD, PhD Center for Community Outreach and Policy, Stein Eye Institute David Geffen School of Medicine Director, UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health UCLA

Dr. Coleman

Anne L. Coleman, MD, PhD
Center for Community Outreach and Policy, Stein Eye Institute
David Geffen School of Medicine
Director, UCLA Mobile Eye Clinic
Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health
UCLA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Cataracts are a leading cause of vision loss worldwide, and cataract surgery is an intervention that is known to be extremely effective to address the vision loss related to cataract. However, it is unclear if there are benefits of cataract surgery beyond vision improvement in people with cataracts. Previous studies have suggested that in addition to improving vision, cataract surgery may decrease the risk of fractures and accidents, improve mental health, and improve overall quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the potential benefits of cataract surgery and to determine if cataract surgery was associated with increased survival in people with cataracts.

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Long Term Physical Activity May Decrease Cataract Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jinjin Zheng Selin, MSc
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology
Institute of Environmental Medicine
Karolinska Institutet Stockholm Sweden

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Response: Our results suggest that higher levels of total physical activity, especially in the long-term, as well as specific types of physical activity including walking/bicycling and work/occupational activity, may be associated with decreased risk of age-related cataract among middle-aged and elderly women and men. On the other side, high levels of leisure time inactivity may be associated with increased risk of cataract.

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Cataracts: Quitting Smoking Decreases Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Birgitta Ejdervik Lindblad, MD PhD
Department of Ophthalmology
Örebro University Hospital Örebro, Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: We have investigated the association between smoking cessation and risk of having a cataract extraction among 44 371 Swedish men aged 45-79 years. During 12 years of follow up we identified 5713 incident cases of cataract extraction.

Smoking cessation significantly decreased the risk with time.

Men who currently smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day had a 42 % increased risk of cataract extraction compared with men who had never smoked.
More than 20 years since quitting smoking, men who had smoked more than 15 cigarettes per day had a 21% increased risk of  having a cataract extraction compared with men who had never smoked.

The effect of smoking cessation was observed earlier among men who smoked less than 15 cigarettes per day but more than 2 decades since smoking cessation the risk had not decreased to the level of never smokers.
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