Characteristics of Poor Outcomes With Incomplete Coronary Artery Revascularization

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

coronary arteries

Wikipedia image

Edward L. Hannan, PhD, MS, MS, FACC
Distinguished Professor and Associate Dean Emeritus
University at Albany
School of Public Health
Rensselaer, NY 12144

 

 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have done a lot of work on complete revascularization (CR) vs. incomplete revascularization (IR) already, and as a follow-up it seemed as if there may be different types of IR that are associated with even worse outcomes relative to CR and other IR.

Incomplete revascularization is associated with worse outcomes if it involves multiple vessels, vessels with severe stenosis, or significant proximal left anterior descending artery vessel (PLAD) stenosis.

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Matching Time of Day To Patient’s Biorhythm May Improve Surgical Outcomes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof David Montaigne MD

Faculté de Médecine de Lille H Warembourg
Lille, France

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known for many decades that cardiovascular diseases exhibit a diurnal variation with for instance higher incidence of myocardial infarction in the early morning as opposed to the evening. Although studies on circadian gene knock-out and mutant mice argue for a biorhythm in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion tolerance, whether a biorhythm in the myocardial tolerance to ischemia, exists in humans was unclear because of conflicting reports in the context of myocardial infarction.

We demonstrated for the first time in humans that the myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion is different along the day, in line with rodent experiments performed in the early 2010s.

We demonstrated that this biorhythm is clinically meaningful and that it can be targeted as a cardioprotective strategy.

In this topic, Rever-alpha is of specific interest. It belongs at the same time to circadian genes and nuclear receptor families: being a nuclear receptor, it is a feasible pharmacological target, conversely to other circadian genes.

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DuraGraft® Vascular Graft Evaluated to Prevent Vein Graft Failure After CABG

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Miguel Haime, MD VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston Medical Center Boston, MA

Dr. Miguel Haime

Miguel Haime, MD
VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston Medical Center
Boston, MA

Dr. Haime discusses an abstract about Somahlution DuraGraft during a rapid response session at the 2016 annual meeting of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS; 1–5 October, Barcelona, Spain)

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is the standard of care for multi-vessel coronary heart disease. During CABG, we use saphenous vein grafts as bypass conduits for surgical revascularization. Pathophysiological changes that occur in vein grafts during the surgical procedure can compromise the durability and patency of the graft and increase the risk of vein graft failure.

At the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) annual meeting, we presented results from a retrospective, non-randomized study conducted at VA Boston Healthcare System to evaluate the Real World Evidence of DuraGraft®, a vascular graft treatment designed to prevent vein graft failure after CABG.

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Study Outlines Risk Factors for Infectious Endocarditis After TAVR

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Josep Rodés-Cabau, MD Director, Catheterization and Interventional Laboratories Quebec Heart and Lung Institute Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

Dr. Rodés-Cabau

Josep Rodés-Cabau, MD
Director, Catheterization and Interventional Laboratories
Quebec Heart and Lung Institute
Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Infectious endocarditis (IE) is one of the most serious complications after surgical prosthetic valve replacement. There are however scarce data regarding the incidence, predictive factors, treatment, and outcomes of IE post-TAVR. To date, the present study represents the largest series of IE post-TAVR, and the main findings can be summarized as follows: (1) the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) post-TAVR is similar to that reported for IE after surgical prosthetic valve replacement; (2) among patients undergoing TAVR, younger age, male sex, a history of diabetes mellitus, and moderate-to-severe residual aortic regurgitation were associated with a higher risk of IE, (3) Enterococci species was the most frequently isolated pathogen, (4) IE post-TAVR was associated with a very high rate of in-hospital complications and mortality during index hospitalization and at follow-up.

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Is Liberal Transfusion Threshold After Cardiac Surgery Preferable?

Barnaby C. Reeves, D.Phil. Professor of Health Services Research, Clinical Trials & Evaluation Unit School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol Bristol Royal Infirmary BristolMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Barnaby C. Reeves, D.Phil.

Professor of Health Services Research, Clinical Trials & Evaluation Unit
School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol
Bristol Royal Infirmary Bristol

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Response: Variable decisions are made about when to transfuse patients after cardiac surgery. The circumstances of particular patients influence decisions about whether to give a transfusion.

Transfusion is a life-saving intervention when a patient is experiencing life-threatening bleeding but most patients have only one or two units of red cells transfused. These transfusions are given at varying levels of anaemia. Some doctors prefer to give a transfusion after cardiac surgery when a patient is only mildly anaemic, believing that the transfusion will promote recovery, while other doctors prefer to wait to transfuse until a patient is substantially anaemic, believing that a transfusion may do more good than harm and is wasteful if it is not needed. Therefore, we carried out a randomized controlled trial comparing restrictive (transfuse when haemoglobin <7.5 g/dL) and liberal transfusion thresholds (transfuse when haemoglobin <9.0 g/dL).*

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Response: We obtained written informed consent before surgery but only randomized participants after surgery, in intensive care, if their Hb dropped below 9 g/dL. (Hence, we recruited over 3,500 patients but randomized only 2007.) This design avoids ‘diluting’ any difference between groups by including participants who would not usually be ‘considered’ for transfusion.

The primary outcome was the occurrence of one or more serious complications: heart attack, stroke, acute kidney injury, bowel infarction, infection; this included/involved 35.1% of the patients in the restrictive-threshold group and 33.0% of the patients in the liberal-threshold group. This slight difference – more in the restrictive group – was not statistically significant.

We then compared the percentages of patients who died; these were 4.2% in the restrictive group and 2.6% in the liberal group. The difference in this secondary outcome was of borderline statistical significance. Frequencies of other secondary outcomes (infections, ischaemic events, days in critical care and hospital, pulmonary complications) were not different in the two groups.

We also carried out some pre-specified sensitivity analyses for the primary outcome and all-cause mortality. The two most important ones aimed to avoid dilution of the difference between groups as a result of patients having transfusions or outcome events before randomization. Excluding patients who were transfused before randomization shifted the treatment effect to favour the liberal threshold more strongly, for both the primary outcome and mortality. Excluding patients who experienced an outcome event in the first 24 hours after randomization did not change the treatment effect for either outcome. Continue reading

Bioprosthetic vs Mechanical Aortic Valves: Similar Safety, Different Complications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Joanna Chikwe MD
Associate Professor
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
Mount Sinai Medical Center and

Natalia N. Egorova, PhD
Department of Health Evidence and Policy,
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York, New York

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: This is one of the largest studies to date on the long-term outcomes of patients after aortic valve replacement. We found that bioprosthetic valves are as safe as mechanical valves in younger patients (age 50-69) – specifically, long-term death rates and stroke risk were very similar in patients who had either valve type. The main differences lay in the risk of other long-term complications: patients who had bioprosthetic valves were more likely to need repeat surgery in the long-term, whereas patients who had mechanical valves were more likely to experience a major bleeding event.
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Follow Your Heart Program Reduced Hospital Readmissions Following Heart Surgery

Michael H. Hall, MD North Shore-LIJ Health SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Michael H. Hall, MD
North Shore-LIJ Health System

MedicalResearch: What are the key points of your research?

Dr. Hall: Our study was designed to improve care transition from the hospital to home after coronary bypass surgery. The innovative program (Follow Your Heart), implemented at one of our system hospitals, involves sending cardiac surgery nurse practitioners (NPs) who cared for the patients in the hospital to the homes of discharged patients for at least two visits in the first two weeks after discharge. Their goal is to provide continuity of care for patients that they know from the hospital setting and to provide robust medication management, coordinate community services, and be a communications hub for hospital and community providers (primary care, cardiology, and community nurse home visit services). The  nurse practitioners interact with community resources to ensure understanding and satisfaction of the patients’ needs prior to hand-off to those resources after two weeks. Our  nurse practitioners utilize encrypted smart phones to provide reports to all appropriate providers and can even send pictures of incisions to the surgeon when necessary.

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