Study Evaluates Effects of Calcification of Occluded Coronary Arteries During PCI

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Emmanouil S. Brilakis, MD, PhD Director, Center for Advanced Coronary Interventions Minneapolis Heart Institute Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407 Adjunct Professor of Medicine University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas

Dr, Brilakis

Emmanouil S. Brilakis, MD, PhD
Director, Center for Advanced Coronary Interventions
Minneapolis Heart Institute
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55407
Adjunct Professor of Medicine
University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Calcification in the coronary arteries might hinder lesion crossing, equipment delivery and stent expansion and contribute to higher rates of in-stent restenosis, as well as stent thrombosis. In this project we sought to examine the impact of calcific deposits on the outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a contemporary, multicenter registry.

We analyzed the outcomes of 1,476 consecutive CTO PCIs performed in 1,453 patients between 2012 and 2016 at 11 US centers. Data collection was performed in a dedicated online database (PROGRESS CTO: Prospective Global Registry for the Study of Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention, Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061436).

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Ischemic Postconditioning During Primary PCI for Patients With STEMI Heart Attack

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Thomas Engstrøm Senior Consultant dr. sci., MD, PhD The Heart Center | Rigshospitalet | University of Copenhagen | Denmark Professor in cardiology | University of Lund | Sweden Adjunct professor in cardiology | University of Aalborg | Denmark

Dr. Engstrøm

Thomas Engstrøm  MD, PhD
The Heart Center | Rigshospitalet | University of Copenhagen | Denmark
Professor in cardiology | University of Lund | Sweden
Adjunct professor in cardiology | University of Aalborg | Denmark 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Timely reperfusion by primary angioplasty (primary PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction is mandatory. However reperfusion it self can harm the myocardium – so called reperfusion injury. During a number of years ischemic postconditioning (iPOST) by repetitive interruptions of blood flow after reperfusion has been a promising technique to address reperfusion damage.

The trial investigated the effect of iPOST in 1200 patients treated with primary PCI and in addition either iPOST or conventional angioplasty.

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Cangrelor With and Without Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients Undergoing PCI

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, FESC Executive Director of Interventional Cardiovascular Programs, Brigham and Women’s Hospital Heart & Vascular Center Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115

Dr. Deepak L. Bhatt

Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, FESC
Executive Director of Interventional Cardiovascular Programs,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital Heart & Vascular Center
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Cangrelor is a potent, fast on, fast off, intravenous ADP receptor antagonist that is now available for use during PCI. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are intravenous antiplatelet agents that work by a different mechanism. Doctors have asked whether there is any advantage to combining them or whether one class is preferable to the other during PCI.

We analyzed close to 25,000 patients from the CHAMPION trials. Cangrelor’s efficacy in reducing peri-procedural ischemic complications in patients undergoing PCI was present
irrespective of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor administration. However, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use resulted in substantially higher bleeding rates, regardless of whether the patient was randomized to cangrelor or to clopidogrel.

Thus, in general, cangrelor and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors should not routinely be combined. If an operator wishes to use a potent intravenous antiplatelet during PCI, cangrelor is similarly efficacious as glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, but with less bleeding risk.

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Use of Oral Anticoagulation at Time of PCI Surgery Linked To Increase in Adverse Events

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eric A. Secemsky, MD MSc Interventional Cardiology Fellow Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School Fellow, Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Dr. Eric A. Secemsky

Eric A. Secemsky, MD MSc
Interventional Cardiology Fellow
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Fellow, Smith Center for Outcomes Research in Cardiology
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy prior to coronary stenting is a significant predictor of post-procedural bleeding events. Previous studies have estimated that the frequency of chronic OAC use among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is between 3% to 7%. Yet many of these analyses examined select patient populations, such as those admitted with acute myocardial infarction or atrial fibrillation, and preceded the market approval of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). As such, the contemporary prevalence of OAC use among all-comers undergoing PCI, as well as associated risks of adverse events, are currently unknown.

Therefore, we used PCI data from a large, integrated healthcare system to determine current use of  oral anticoagulant use among all-comers undergoing coronary stenting and the related short- and long-term risks of therapy.

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JAMA Study Finds More Interventions and Increasing Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nish Patel, MD and Nileshkumar J. Patel, MD
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is estimated to affect approximately 300,000 people in the United States annually. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) contributes 23-54% of OHCA patients, with the median values at the lower end of this range. Coronary artery disease is thought to be responsible for up to 70% of these OHCA cases.

It has been suggested that urgent coronary intervention in unconscious patients after cardiac arrest may improve survival. In the 2015 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, coronary angiography is recommended in patients with OHCA patients with a suspected cardiac etiology and ST elevations (STE) on ECG (Class of recommendation I, Level of evidence B), and it should be considered in patients after cardiac arrest presenting without STE but with suspected cardiac etiology of cardiac arrest (Class of recommendation II a, Level of evidence B). However, there is paucity of information about the use of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and its potential benefit for the VT/VF OHCA patient population.

Therefore, we reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), to examine temporal trends of coronary angiography and PCI in VT/VF OHCA in the United States, for patients with and without STE. We also studied the temporal trends of survival to discharge in these patient populations.

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Significant Decline in Readmissions After PCI in Medicare Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christian A. McNeely, M.D. Resident Physician - Internal Medicine Barnes-Jewish Hospital Washington University Medical Center

Dr. Christian McNeely

Christian A. McNeely, M.D.
Resident Physician – Internal Medicine
Barnes-Jewish Hospital
Washington University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Prior research has demonstrated that readmission in the first 30 days after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common, reported around one in six or seven Medicare beneficiaries, and that many are potentially preventable. Since 2000, there have been significant changes in the management of coronary artery disease and the use of PCI. Additionally, in the last decade, readmission rates have become a major focus of research, quality improvement and a public health issue, with multiple resulting national initiatives/programs which may be affecting care. Therefore, in this study, we sought to examine contemporary trends in readmission characteristics and associated outcomes of patients who underwent PCI using the Medicare database from 2000-2012.

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PCI Stenting All Lesions At Time of STEMI Reduces Reinfarction and Mortality

Henning Kelbæk, MD Department of Cardiology Roskilde Hospital Roskilde, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Henning Kelbæk, MD
Department of Cardiology
Roskilde Hospital Roskilde, Denmark

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Kelbæk: The background to conduct the DANAMI 3-Primulti trial is the uncertainty of which strategy is most favourable to the patient with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: to treat the culprit (resposible for the acute infarction) lesion only or to treat all visible lesions (complete revascularisation)

The main findings of the PRIMULTI trial are that patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease, benefit from supplementary complete revascularisation of lesions in non-infarct related arteries when the second procedure is done during the index admission guided by measurement of the fractional flow reserve. This strategy results in a significant reduction in the combination of all-cause mortality, nonfatal reinfarction, and ischaemia-driven revascularisation.

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No Difference in PCI Stent Surgery Mortality Performed With/Without Surgical Support

Dr Scot Garg FRCP PhD (Hons) FESC Cardiology Department, Royal Blackburn Hospital United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Scot Garg FRCP PhD (Hons) FESC
Cardiology Department, Royal Blackburn Hospital
United Kingdom

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Garg: In contrast to other countries, in particular the United States, the UK has seen a vast expansion in the number of PCI centres operating without on-site surgical support. Part of the reason for this is that outcome data from these centres are from modest populations at short-term follow-up; consequently the ACC/AHA have failed to give delivery of PCI in centres without surgical back-up a strong endorsement. The study was ultimately driven therefore to show whether any differences existed in mortality between patients having PCI in centres with- and without surgical support at long-term follow-up in large unselected population cohort.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Garg: The study included the largest population of patients treated in centres without off-site surgical support (n=119,036) and main findings were that following multi-variate adjustment there were no differences in mortality for patients treated at centres with- or without surgical support at 30-days, 1-year or 5-year follow-up irrespective of whether patients were treated for stable angina, NSTEMI or STEMI. Furthermore, similar results were seen in a sensitivity analysis of a propensity matched cohort of 74,001 patients. Continue reading

Nightcall PCI Procedures Don’t Affect Cardiologists’ Daytime Outcomes

Herbert Aronow, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Herbert D. Aronow, MD, MPH, FACC, FSCAI, FSVM
Governor, American College of Cardiology (ACC) – Michigan Chapter
Chair, ACC Peripheral Vascular Disease Section
Trustee, Society for Vascular Medicine

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Aronow: Psychomotor and cognitive performance may be impaired by sleep deprivation.  Interventional cardiologists perform emergent, middle-of-the-night procedures, and may be sleep-deprived as a consequence.  Whether performance of middle-of-the-night percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures impacts outcomes associated with PCI procedures performed the following day is not known.  Continue reading

VA Study Examines Variability of Costs and Mortality of Stent Surgery

Dr. P. Michael Ho, MD PhD Denver Veteran Affairs Medical Center, University of Colorado, Denver, Section of Cardiology Denver, Colorado 80220.MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. P. Michael Ho, MD PhD
Denver Veteran Affairs Medical Center,
University of Colorado, Denver, Section of Cardiology
Denver, Colorado 80220.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Ho: There is increasing interest in measuring health care value, particularly as the healthcare system moves towards accountable care. Value in health care focuses on measuring outcomes achieved relative to costs for a cycle of care. Attaining high value care – good clinical outcomes at low costs – is of interest to patients, providers, health systems, and payers. To date, value assessments have not been operationalized and applied to specific patient populations. We focused on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because it is an important aspect of care for patients with ischemic heart disease, is commonly performed and is a costly procedure. In this study, we evaluated 1-year risk-adjusted mortality and 1-year risk-standardized costs of care for all patients who underwent PCI in the VA healthcare system from 2008 to 2010.

We found that median one-year unadjusted hospital mortality rate was 6.13% (interquartile range 4.51% to 7.34% across hospitals). Four hospitals were significantly above the one-year risk standardized median mortality rate, with median mortality ratios ranging from 1.23 to 1.28; no hospitals were significantly below median mortality. Median 1-year total unadjusted hospital costs were $46,302 (IQR of $37,291 to $57,886) per patient. There were 16 hospitals above and 19 hospitals below the risk standardized average cost, with risk standardized ratios ranging from 0.45 to 2.09 reflecting much larger magnitude of variability in costs compared to mortality. These findings suggest that there are opportunities to improve PCI healthcare by reducing costs without compromising outcomes. This approach of evaluating outcomes and costs together may be a model for other health systems and accountable care organizations interested in operationalizing value measurement. Continue reading

High Maintenance Dose Clopidogrel After PCI May Reduce Adverse Events

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Yan Liang, MD, PHD on behalf of co-authors

Emergency and Intensive Care Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background of this study is mainly derived from the results of CURRENT-OASIS7 which has shown a 7-day 150 mg maintenance dose (MD) clopidogrel could reduce cardiovascular events among subgroup patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with the 75 mg/day regimen. We conducted a meta-analysis based on 17 randomized controlled trials to determine whether prolonging the high MD clopidogrel (≥150 mg) treatment period to at least 4 weeks could reduce major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the PCI patients with and without high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR).

Our study concluded that the high  maintenance dose clopidogrel was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of MACEs in PCI patients without increasing the rate of “Major/Minor bleeding” or “Any bleeding” in comparison with standard 75mg MD clopidogrel, and the “HPR Patients” subgroup were also benefited from such high MD treatment.

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Should Bystander Coronary Arteries Be Treated At Same Time As Primary PCI?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Bilal Iqbal MD
Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust
Harefield Hospital
Middlesex United Kingdom.

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Iqbal: The optimal strategy for revascularization of bystander coronary disease at the time of PPCI is unknown. Certainly, this has been the focus of recent debate and randomized controlled trials. We evaluated a strategy of culprit vessel versus multivessel intervention at the time PPCI in the real world setting. We conducted an observational analysis of 3984 consecutive patients with STEMI undergoing Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) who had multivessel disease. We excluded patients with cardiogenic shock and patients with bystander LMS disease, which may potentially dictate staged surgical intervention. When analysing all-cause mortality at 1 year, we found that a strategy of culprit vessel intervention only at the time of PPCI was associated with increased survival at 1 year.
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